Hemodialysis. Hemodialysis is done in a dialysis center or hospital by trained health care professionals. A special type of access, called an arteriovenous (AV) fistula, is placed surgically, usually, in your child's arm. This involves joining an artery and a vein together. An external, central, intravenous (IV) catheter may also be inserted, but is less common for long-term dialysis. After access has been established, your child will be connected to a large hemodialysis machine that drains your child's blood, bathes it in a special dialysate solution that removes waste substances and fluid, then returns it to your child's bloodstream. Hemodialysis is usually done several times a week and each session lasts for 4 to 5 hours. Because of the length of time hemodialysis takes, it may be helpful to bring games or reading materials for your child to keep him or her busy during this procedure.