Hemodialysis. Hemodialysis is performed in a dialysis center or hospital by trained health care professionals. A special type of access, called an arteriovenous (AV) fistula, is placed surgically, usually, in your child's arm. This involves joining an artery and a vein together. An external, central, intravenous (IV) catheter may also be inserted, but is less common for long-term dialysis. After access has been established, your child will be connected to a large hemodialysis machine that drains your child's blood, bathes it in a special dialysate solution that removes waste substances and fluid, then returns it to your child's bloodstream. Hemodialysis is usually performed several times a week and lasts for four to five hours. Because of the length of time hemodialysis takes, it may be helpful to bring games or reading materials for your child to occupy him or her during this procedure.