Tests and Procedures We offer a full range of the most up-to-date diagnostic studies and therapeutic treatments available today for all types of childhood cancer and blood-related diseases. Our Hematology/Oncology physicians work closely with the surgeons and radiation oncologists when a team approach to treatment offers the potential for the best outcome. Diagnostic Tests CAT Scan is computed tomography (CT) is a method of body imaging in which a thin x-ray beam rotates around the patient. Small detectors measure the amount of x-rays that make it through the patient or particular area of interest. A computer analyzes the data to construct a cross-sectional image. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. In addition, three-dimensional models of organs can be created by stacking the individual images, or "slices." HLA Testing is a blood test used to determine compatibility prior to an organ or bone marrow transplant. MRA (Magnetic Resonance Angiography) produces detailed, accurate, cross-sectional pictures ("slices") of blood vessels, and is used to diagnose and aid in the treatment of blood vessel diseases. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is an imaging technique that produces detailed, accurate, cross-sectional pictures ("slices") of internal organs and body parts. Like an x-ray, an MRI can "see through" bones and other obstructions. An MRI does not use ionizing radiation and has no known biological risks. Screening for sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder. At-risk children are usually tested at birth. Testing involves a blood test that looks for the amount of Hemoglobin S, and the shape of the red blood cells. Procedures Bone Marrow Aspirates is when a small amount of bone marrow is removed during a bone marrow aspiration. The procedure is uncomfortable, but can be tolerated by both children and adults. The marrow can be studied to determine the cause of anemia, the presence of leukemia or other malignancy, or the presence of some "storage diseases" in which abnormal metabolic products are stored in certain bone marrow cells. and biopsies Bone Marrow Biopsies—Bone marrow is soft tissue found inside some of the larger bones in the body. The marrow produces platelets and red and white blood cells. A biopsy is a method of removing a small tissue sample from the body to have it examined under a microscope and possibly analyzed by other tests. Bone Marrow Transplant is a procedure to transplant healthy bone marrow into a patient whose bone marrow is not functioning properly. Problems in bone marrow are often caused by chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer. This procedure can also be done to correct hereditary blood diseases. Chemotherapy Lumbar Puncture—Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is a clear fluid that circulates in the space surrounding the spinal cord and brain. CSF protects the brain and spinal cord from injury by acting like a liquid cushion. CSF is usually obtained through a lumbar puncture (spinal tap). During the procedure, a needle is inserted usually between the 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae and the CSF fluid is collected for testing. Umbilical Cord Blood Transplants—Umbilical cord blood is one source of stem cells. Infusing healthy stem cells into patients is treatment option for those who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy for one of many forms of leukemia, immunodeficiency, lymphoma, anemias, or metabolic disorders. Once the healthy stem cells are infused into the patient's blood stream, the cells move from the blood vessels to the center of the bones, where they begin making new blood cells.