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The kidney's main job is to get rid of excess fluid and waste material in your blood. Kidneys damaged by disease, injury, or birth defects lose their filtering ability, and dangerous levels of fluid and waste accumulate. This is known as kidney or renal failure. A person with kidney failure, also known as end-stage renal disease, needs dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive. Learn more about dialysis by taking this quiz, based on information from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).