Neurology

Conditions We Treat

Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized in the brain by abnormal clumps (amyloid plaques) and tangled bundles of fibers (neurofibrillary tangles) composed of misplaced proteins. Age is the most important risk factor for AD; the number of people with the disease doubles every 5 years beyond age 65. Three genes have been discovered that cause early onset (familial) AD. Other genetic mutations that cause excessive accumulation of amyloid protein are associated with age-related (sporadic) AD. Symptoms of AD include memory loss, language deterioration, impaired ability to mentally manipulate visual information, poor judgment, confusion, restlessness, and mood swings. Eventually, AD destroys cognition, personality, and the ability to function. The early symptoms of AD, which include forgetfulness and loss of concentration, are often missed because they resemble natural signs of aging.

Treatment

There is no cure for AD and no way to slow the progression of the disease. For some people in the early or middle stages of AD, medication such as tacrine (Cognex) may alleviate some cognitive symptoms. Donepezil (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon), and galantamine (Reminyl) may keep some symptoms from becoming worse for a limited time. A fifth drug, memantine (Namenda), was recently approved for use in the United States. Combining memantine with other AD drugs may be more effective than any single therapy. One controlled clinical trial found that patients receiving donepezil plus memantine had better cognition and other functions than patients receiving donepezil alone. Also, other medications may help control behavioral symptoms such as sleeplessness, agitation, wandering, anxiety, and depression.

Prognosis

AD is a progressive disease, but its course can vary from 5 to 20 years. The most common cause of death in AD patients is infection.

Helpful Resources

Highland Neurology

NYS Designated Stroke Center

NYS Dept of Health

Use the F.A.S.T. Test

If you think you or someone you know is having a stroke.

Face

Ask the person to smile. Is the face lopsided?

Arm

Ask the person to raise arms. Does one arm drift down?

Speech

Ask the person to repeat a phrase. Does their speech sound strange? Can they do it without slurring words?

Time

Don't waste it. Call 911 now.