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Robert A. Gross

TitleProfessor
InstitutionSchool of Medicine and Dentistry
DepartmentNeurology
AddressUniversity of Rochester Medical Center
School of Medicine and Dentistry
601 Elmwood Ave, Box 673
Rochester NY 14642
Other Positions
TitleProfessor
InstitutionSchool of Medicine and Dentistry
DepartmentPharmacology and Physiology

 
 Awards And Honors
1975     A.B. in Biology, summa cum laude
1976     Cowdry Prize in Microscopic Anatomy
1981     Irwin S. Levy Prize in Neurology
1981     Election to Alpha Omega Alpha
1987     S. Weir Mitchell Award
1997     Buswell Fellow
 
 Overview
Robert A. Gross MD, PhD, FAAN graduated from Harvard College with an AB in Biology, summa cum laude, in 1975. He entered the Medical Scientist Training Program at Washington University, St. Louis, where he earned both the MD and PhD (Pharmacology) degrees (1981). He received the Cowdry Prize in Histology. He interned in Medicine at Jewish Hospital in St. Louis and his residency in Neurology was at the Massachusetts General Hospital, where he served as Chief Resident. Faculty positions followed at the University of Michigan (1985-1991) and the University of Minnesota (1991-1994). Dr. Gross joined the faculty of the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) in 1994.

He sees patients in the Strong Epilepsy Center, with a particular interest in the pharmacology of anti-seizure drugs.

Research interests have centered on the regulation of neuronal ion channel activity by pharmacological agents and neurotransmitters and, more recently, the regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by seizures and by chemotherapeutic drugs (as a mechanism of 'chemobrain'). Collaborative studies include investigations of the role of inflammation in epileptogenesis and various clinical trials, including participation in a multi-center task force to design trials to compare brand to generic AEDs. He was the recipient of the S. Weir Mitchell Award of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) in 1988.

Dr. Gross' educational efforts are diverse. He is a former director of the interdepartmental Graduate Program in Neuroscience at the University of Rochester. He is the founding and current Director of the Academic Research Track, an innovative curriculum for medical students that prepares them for a year-out experience in medical research, often concurrent with Masters degree preparation. This program is funded by URMC's Clinical and Translational Science Award and he is a member of the grant's Educational and Evaluation Directorate. He serves on the design committee for the medical student course "Mind, Brain and Behavior" for which he provides 9 hours of lecture in neuropharmacology. He is the Director of a novel basic science course for fourth year medical students, the month-long "Process of Discovery," in which they design cutting-edge research programs to effect changes in clinical care over a decade. He teaches in AAN Annual Meeting courses and was responsible for the "Neuropharmacology" section of the Resident Basic Science Curriculum.

He has served as an Associate Editor of Neurology® since 2001, two of which were as Deputy Editor. He was appointed Editor-in-Chief in 2010.

He is a fellow of the AAN, and a member of the Society for Neuroscience, the American Neurological Association and the American Epilepsy Society. Dr. Gross is active in the Epilepsy Foundation of the Rochester, Syracuse and Binghamton regions, having served as a Chair of the Board of Directors.

He has appeared on the PBS program "Second Opinion" and on local radio shows on the topic of epilepsy.

 
 Selected Publications
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  1. Knopman DK, Gross RA. A call for "negative" outcome studies. Neurology. 2014 Jan 7; 82(1):11-2.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Wilson IB, Bangsberg DR, Shen J, Simoni JM, Reynolds NR, Goggin K, Gross R, Arnsten JH, Remien RH, Erlen JA, Liu H. Heterogeneity Among Studies in Rates of Decline of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Over Time: Results From the Multisite Adherence Collaboration on HIV 14 Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Dec 15; 64(5):448-54.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Brenner SR, Calamante F, Gross RA. Mouse brain kaleidoscope. Neurology. 2013 Apr 30; 80(18):1720.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Pereira A, Gitlin MJ, Gross RA, Posner K, Dworkin RH. Suicidality associated with antiepileptic drugs: Implications for the treatment of neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Pain. 2013 Mar; 154(3):345-9.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Landis SC, Amara SG, Asadullah K, Austin CP, Blumenstein R, Bradley EW, Crystal RG, Darnell RB, Ferrante RJ, Fillit H, Finkelstein R, Fisher M, Gendelman HE, Golub RM, Goudreau JL, Gross RA, Gubitz AK, Hesterlee SE, Howells DW, Huguenard J, Kelner K, Koroshetz W, Krainc D, Lazic SE, Levine MS, Macleod MR, McCall JM, Moxley RT, Narasimhan K, Noble LJ, Perrin S, Porter JD, Steward O, Unger E, Utz U, Silberberg SD. A call for transparent reporting to optimize the predictive value of preclinical research. Nature. 2012 Oct 11; 490(7419):187-91.
    View in: PubMed
  6. DiGiovanni BF, Ward DS, O'Donnell SM, Fong CT, Gross RA, Grady-Weliky T, Lambert DR. Process of discovery: a fourth-year translational science course. Med Educ Online. 2011; 16.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Baskin PK, Gross RA. Honorary and ghost authorship. BMJ. 2011; 343:d6223.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Knopman DS, Baskin PK, Pieper KM, Quimby SL, Gross RA. Reporting potential bias: Neurology's evolving policies. Neurology. 2011 Jan 11; 76(2):110-2.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Gross RA. Three flasks. Neurology. 2010 Jul 6; 75(1):92.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Janelsins MC, Roscoe JA, Berg MJ, Thompson BD, Gallagher MJ, Morrow GR, Heckler CE, Jean-Pierre P, Opanashuk LA, Gross RA. IGF-1 partially restores chemotherapy-induced reductions in neural cell proliferation in adult C57BL/6 mice. Cancer Invest. 2010 Jun; 28(5):544-53.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Baskin PK, Knopman DS, Gross RA. Conflicts of interest, authorship, and disclosures in industry-related scientific publications. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010 Feb; 85(2):196-7; author 201-4.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Gross RA. Mission: neurology(r). Neurology. 2010 Jan 5; 74(1):10-2.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Gross RA, Johnston KC. Levels of evidence: Taking Neurology to the next level. Neurology. 2009 Jan 6; 72(1):8-10.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Noseworthy JH, Gross RA. Citation and readership metrics: how does Neurology measure up? Neurology. 2008 Dec 2; 71(23):1846-7.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Berg MJ, Gross RA, Haskins LS, Zingaro WM, Tomaszewski KJ. Generic substitution in the treatment of epilepsy: patient and physician perceptions. Epilepsy Behav. 2008 Nov; 13(4):693-9.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Berg MJ, Gross RA, Tomaszewski KJ, Zingaro WM, Haskins LS. Generic substitution in the treatment of epilepsy: case evidence of breakthrough seizures. Neurology. 2008 Aug 12; 71(7):525-30.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Noseworthy JH, Gross RA, Engel AG, Johnston KC, Knopman DS, Mink JW, Ransohoff RM, Uitti RJ. Translating research into treatments. Neurology. 2008 Jul 22; 71(4):232-3.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Duan Y, Gross RA, Sheu SS. Ca2+-dependent generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species serves as a signal for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation during glutamate excitotoxicity. J Physiol. 2007 Dec 15; 585(Pt 3):741-58.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Gross RA. The profusion of genotypes and phenotypes in "idiopathic" generalized epilepsies. Neurology. 2005 Aug 23; 65(4):503.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Beydoun A, Uthman BM, Kugler AR, Greiner MJ, Knapp LE, Garofalo EA. Safety and efficacy of two pregabalin regimens for add-on treatment of partial epilepsy. Neurology. 2005 Feb 8; 64(3):475-80.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Gross RA, Gidal BE, Pack AM. Patient page. Antiseizure drugs and reduced bone density. Neurology. 2004 Jun 8; 62(11):E24-5.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Takahashi Y, Mori H, Mishina M, Watanabe M, Fujiwara T, Shimomura J, Aiba H, Miyajima T, Saito Y, Nezu A, Nishida H, Imai K, Sakaguchi N, Kondo N. Autoantibodies to NMDA receptor in patients with chronic forms of epilepsia partialis continua. Neurology. 2003 Oct 14; 61(7):891-6.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Lagerlund TD, Gross RA. DC-EEG recording: a paradigm shift in seizure localization? Neurology. 2003 Apr 8; 60(7):1062-3.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Ferland RJ, Williams JP, Gross RA, Applegate CD. The effects of brain-irradiation-induced decreases in hippocampal mitotic activity on flurothyl-induced epileptogenesis in adult C57BL/6J mice. Exp Neurol. 2003 Jan; 179(1):71-82.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Ferland RJ, Gross RA, Applegate CD. Differences in hippocampal mitotic activity within the dorsal and ventral hippocampus following flurothyl seizures in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Oct 31; 332(2):131-5.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Alano CC, Beutner G, Dirksen RT, Gross RA, Sheu SS. Mitochondrial permeability transition and calcium dynamics in striatal neurons upon intense NMDA receptor activation. J Neurochem. 2002 Feb; 80(3):531-8.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Ferland RJ, Gross RA, Applegate CD. Increased mitotic activity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adult C57BL/6J mice exposed to the flurothyl kindling model of epileptogenesis. Neuroscience. 2002; 115(3):669-83.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Scott JK, Huang SF, Gangadhar BP, Samoriski GM, Clapp P, Gross RA, Taussig R, Smrcka AV. Evidence that a protein-protein interaction 'hot spot' on heterotrimeric G protein betagamma subunits is used for recognition of a subclass of effectors. EMBO J. 2001 Feb 15; 20(4):767-76.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Samoriski GM, Gross RA. Functional compartmentalization of opioid desensitization in primary sensory neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Aug; 294(2):500-9.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Xie W, Samoriski GM, McLaughlin JP, Romoser VA, Smrcka A, Hinkle PM, Bidlack JM, Gross RA, Jiang H, Wu D. Genetic alteration of phospholipase C beta3 expression modulates behavioral and cellular responses to mu opioids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 31; 96(18):10385-90.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Gross RA, Theodore WH. "The seat of the discharge" and the molecules that govern seizures. Neurology. 1999 Feb; 52(3):441-3.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Greene JG, Sheu SS, Gross RA, Greenamyre JT. 3-Nitropropionic acid exacerbates N-methyl-D-aspartate toxicity in striatal culture by multiple mechanisms. Neuroscience. 1998 May; 84(2):503-10.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Wiley JW, Moises HC, Gross RA, MacDonald RL. Dynorphin A-mediated reduction in multiple calcium currents involves a G(o) alpha-subtype G protein in rat primary afferent neurons. J Neurophysiol. 1997 Mar; 77(3):1338-48.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Gross RA, Covey DF, Ferrendelli JA. Voltage-dependent calcium channels as targets for convulsant and anticonvulsant alkyl-substituted thiobutyrolactones. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Feb; 280(2):686-94.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Gross RA, Huggenvik J, Massa E, Allen RG, Uhler MD. Genetic alteration of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase subunit expression affects calcium currents and beta-endorphin release in AtT-20 clonal pituitary cells. Mol Endocrinol. 1994 Aug; 8(8):970-82.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Wiley JW, Gross RA, MacDonald RL. Agonists for neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes NPY-1 and NPY-2 have opposite actions on rat nodose neuron calcium currents. J Neurophysiol. 1993 Jul; 70(1):324-30.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Wiley JW, Gross RA, MacDonald RL. The peptide CGRP increases a high-threshold Ca2+ current in rat nodose neurones via a pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway. J Physiol. 1992 Sep; 455:367-81.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Gross RA. A brief history of epilepsy and its therapy in the Western Hemisphere. Epilepsy Res. 1992 Jul; 12(2):65-74.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Kelly KM, Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) reduces voltage-dependent calcium currents in rat sensory neurons. Neurosci Lett. 1991 Nov 11; 132(2):247-50.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Skoglund G, Gross RA, Bertrand GR, Ahrén B, Loubatières-Mariani MM. Comparison of effects of neuropeptide Y and norepinephrine on insulin secretion and vascular resistance in perfused rat pancreas. Diabetes. 1991 Jun; 40(6):660-5.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Gross RA, Uhler MD, Macdonald RL. The reduction of neuronal calcium currents by ATP-gamma-S is mediated by a G protein and occurs independently of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Brain Res. 1990 Dec 10; 535(2):214-20.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Gross RA, Uhler MD, Macdonald RL. The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit selectively enhances calcium currents in rat nodose neurones. J Physiol. 1990 Oct; 429:483-96.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Gross RA, Moises HC, Uhler MD, Macdonald RL. Dynorphin A and cAMP-dependent protein kinase independently regulate neuronal calcium currents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Sep; 87(18):7025-9.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Kelly KM, Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Valproic acid selectively reduces the low-threshold (T) calcium current in rat nodose neurons. Neurosci Lett. 1990 Aug 14; 116(1-2):233-8.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Wiley JW, Gross RA, Lu YX, Macdonald RL. Neuropeptide Y reduces calcium current and inhibits acetylcholine release in nodose neurons via a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism. J Neurophysiol. 1990 Jun; 63(6):1499-507.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Gross RA, Wiley JW, Ryan-Jastrow T, Macdonald RL. Regulation by GTP and its stable thiol derivatives of calcium current components in rat nodose ganglion neurons. Mol Pharmacol. 1990 Apr; 37(4):546-53.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Gross RA, MacDonald RL. Activators of protein kinase C selectively enhance inactivation of a calcium current component of cultured sensory neurons in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. J Neurophysiol. 1989 Jun; 61(6):1259-69.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Gross RA, Macdonald RL, Ryan-Jastrow T. 2-Chloroadenosine reduces the N calcium current of cultured mouse sensory neurones in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. J Physiol. 1989 Apr; 411:585-95.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Cyclic AMP selectively reduces the N-type calcium current component of mouse sensory neurons in culture by enhancing inactivation. J Neurophysiol. 1989 Jan; 61(1):97-105.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Differential actions of pentobarbitone on calcium current components of mouse sensory neurones in culture. J Physiol. 1988 Nov; 405:187-203.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Reduction of the same calcium current component by A and C kinases: differential pertussis toxin sensitivity. Neurosci Lett. 1988 May 16; 88(1):50-6.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Gross RA, Herridge P. A maniclike illness associated with right frontal arteriovenous malformation. J Clin Psychiatry. 1988 Mar; 49(3):119-20.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Barbiturates and nifedipine have different and selective effects on calcium currents of mouse DRG neurons in culture: a possible basis for differing clinical actions. The 1987 S. Weir Mitchell award. Neurology. 1988 Mar; 38(3):443-51.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Gross RA, Macdonald RL. Dynorphin A selectively reduces a large transient (N-type) calcium current of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons in cell culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Aug; 84(15):5469-73.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Tyler KL, Gross RA, Cascino GD. Unusual viral causes of transverse myelitis: hepatitis A virus and cytomegalovirus. Neurology. 1986 Jun; 36(6):855-8.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Macdonald RL, Weddle MG, Gross RA. Benzodiazepine, beta-carboline, and barbiturate actions on GABA responses. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol. 1986; 41:67-78.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Wechsler LR, Gross RA, Miller DC. Meningeal gliomatosis with "negative" CSF cytology: the value of GFAP staining. Neurology. 1984 Dec; 34(12):1611-5.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Gross RA, Ferrendelli JA. Relationships between norepinephrine and cyclic nucleotides in brain and seizure activity. Neuropharmacology. 1982 Jul; 21(7):655-61.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Ferrendelli JA, Blank AC, Gross RA. Relationships between seizure activity and cyclic nucleotide levels in brain. Brain Res. 1980 Oct 27; 200(1):93-103.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Gross RA, Ferrendelli JA. Mechanisms of cyclic AMP regulation in cerebral anoxia and their relationship to glycogenolysis. J Neurochem. 1980 May; 34(5):1309-18.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Gross RA, Ferrendelli JA. Effects of reserpine, propranolol, and aminophylline on seizure activity and CNS cyclic nucleotides. Ann Neurol. 1979 Oct; 6(4):296-301.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Spehlmann R, Gross RA, Ho SU, Leestma JE, Norcross KA. Visual evoked potentials and postmortem findings in a case of cortical blindness. Ann Neurol. 1977 Dec; 2(6):531-4.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Gross RA, Clark RB. Regulation of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate content in human astrocytoma cells by isoproterenol and carbachol. Mol Pharmacol. 1977 Mar; 13(2):242-50.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Ignarro LJ, Gross RA, Gross DM. Inhibition of mammalian soluble guanylate cyclase activity by adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate, guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate and other nucleotides. J Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 1976 Sep-Oct; 2(5):337-46.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Clark RB, Gross R, Su YF, Perkins JP. Regulation of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate content in human astrocytoma cells by adenosine and the adenine nucleotides. J Biol Chem. 1974 Aug 25; 249(16):5296-303.
    View in: PubMed

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