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Martha Blair

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionSchool of Medicine and Dentistry
DepartmentPharmacology and Physiology
AddressUniversity of Rochester Medical Center
School of Medicine and Dentistry
601 Elmwood Ave, Box 711
Rochester NY 14642
 
 Awards And Honors
1969     Sigma Xi
1978 - 1981Young Investigator Award  | NIH Heart Lung and Blood Institute
1979 - 1982Mellon Foundation Fellow
1981     Commendation for excellence in first-year medical teaching, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
1982 - 1987Research Career Development Award  | NIH Heart Lung and Blood Institute
1982     Commendation for excellence in first-year medical teaching, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
1983     Manuel Goldman Award for Excellence in Medical Teaching, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
1985 - 1988Mellon Foundation Fellow
1987     Commendation for excellence in first-year medical teaching, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
1988 - 1991Dean's Teaching Fellow  | University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
 
 Overview
The goal of our research program is to understand the neural and neuroendocrine mechanisms by which blood pressure and body-fluid balance are regulated. We are particularly interested in those mechanisms that restore blood pressure and volume to appropriate levels when the cardiovascular system is challenged by conditions such as blood loss. Because anesthesia alters both sympathetic nervous system and neuroendocrine responses to cardiovascular signals, the majority of our current studies are performed in conscious, unrestrained rats with chronically indwelling vascular catheters.
Our primary research focus is on neural control of the renin-angiotensin system. Renin is a proteolytic enzyme which is secreted by the kidney and results in formation of the peptide hormone angiotensin. Renin secretion increases whenever blood pressure or blood volume decreases below normal levels. Angiotensin causes blood vessels to constrict, and has multiple additional actions which serve to elevate arterial blood pressure and defend blood volume. Our research employs physiological, pharmacological, and neuroanatomical techniques to evaluate the central nervous system and peripheral autonomic pathways that regulate renin release during cardiovascular challenges such as hemorrhage.

We have recently begun to investigate the effects of the female reproductive cycle in cardiovascular regulation. The majority of cardiovascular research has been performed in male subjects. However, recent evidence suggests that estrogen and progesterone may affect multiple facets of cardiovascular regulation. Our recent studies indicate that the ability to restore blood volume after a hemorrhage is significantly affected by the female reproductive cycle. This is an ongoing topic of research.

 
 Selected Publications
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  1. Hsu JW, Yasmin-Karim S, King MR, Wojciechowski JC, Mickelsen D, Blair ML, Ting HJ, Ma WL, Lee YF. Suppression of prostate cancer cell rolling and adhesion to endothelium by 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Am J Pathol. 2011 Feb; 178(2):872-80.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Wojciechowski JC, Narasipura SD, Charles N, Mickelsen D, Rana K, Blair ML, King MR. Capture and enrichment of CD34-positive haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from blood circulation using P-selectin in an implantable device. Br J Haematol. 2008 Mar; 140(6):673-81.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Blair ML. Sex-based differences in physiology: what should we teach in the medical curriculum? Adv Physiol Educ. 2007 Mar; 31(1):23-5.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Blair ML, Mickelsen D. Activation of lateral parabrachial nucleus neurons restores blood pressure and sympathetic vasomotor drive after hypotensive hemorrhage. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006 Sep; 291(3):R742-50.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Blair ML, Mickelsen D. Plasma protein and blood volume restitution after hemorrhage in conscious pregnant and ovarian steroid-replaced rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006 Feb; 290(2):R425-34.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Radke KJ, King KB, Blair ML, Fitzpatrick PG, Eldredge DH. Hormonal responses to the 6-minute walk test in women and men with coronary heart disease: a pilot study. Heart Lung. 2005 Mar-Apr; 34(2):126-35.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Jaworski RL, Blair ML. Lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle augment the renin response to blood loss but do not alter hypothalamic Fos expression. Brain Res Bull. 2004 Jul 15; 63(6):451-9.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Jaworski RL, Piekut D, Blair ML. Pregnancy alters lateral parabrachial nucleus but not hypothalamic Fos expression following hypotensive hemorrhage. Brain Res Bull. 2002 Mar 15; 57(5):595-602.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Blair ML, Jaworski RL, Want A, Piekut DT. Parabrachial nucleus modulates cardiovascular responses to blood loss. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001 Apr; 280(4):R1141-8.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Van de Kar LD, Blair ML. Forebrain pathways mediating stress-induced hormone secretion. Front Neuroendocrinol. 1999 Jan; 20(1):1-48.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Blair ML, Want A, Olschowka JA, Piekut D. Role of paraventricular nucleus parvicellular neurons in the compensatory responses to graded hemorrhage. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jul; 275(1 Pt 2):R278-85.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Blair ML, Woolf PD, Felten SY. Sympathetic activation cannot fully account for increased plasma renin levels during water deprivation. Am J Physiol. 1997 Apr; 272(4 Pt 2):R1197-203.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Slimmer LM, Blair ML. Female reproductive cycle influences plasma volume and protein restitution after hemorrhage in the conscious rat. Am J Physiol. 1996 Sep; 271(3 Pt 2):R626-33.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Buske-Kirschbaum A, Grota L, Kirschbaum C, Bienen T, Moynihan J, Ader R, Blair ML, Hellhammer DH, Felten DL. Conditioned increase in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) number and corticosterone secretion in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996 Sep; 55(1):27-32.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Blair ML, Piekut D, Want A, Olschowka JA. Role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in cardiovascular regulation. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1996 Feb; 23(2):161-5.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Blair ML, Gengo FM. Beta-adrenergic control of renin in sodium-deprived conscious dogs: renal versus extrarenal location. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995 Aug; 73(8):1198-202.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Blair ML, Hisa H, Sladek CD, Radke KJ, Gengo FM. Dual adrenergic control of renin during nonhypotensive hemorrhage in conscious dogs. Am J Physiol. 1991 Jun; 260(6 Pt 1):E910-9.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Skoog KM, Blair ML, Sladek CD, Williams WM, Mangiapane ML. Area postrema: essential for support of arterial pressure after hemorrhage in rats. Am J Physiol. 1990 Jun; 258(6 Pt 2):R1472-8.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Hisa H, Chen YH, Radke KJ, Izzo JL, Sladek CD, Blair ML. Adrenergic control of renin during dietary sodium deprivation in conscious dogs. Am J Physiol. 1989 Jun; 256(6 Pt 1):E863-71.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Mangiapane ML, Skoog KM, Rittenhouse P, Blair ML, Sladek CD. Lesion of the area postrema region attenuates hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Circ Res. 1989 Jan; 64(1):129-35.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Chen YH, Hisa H, Radke KJ, Izzo JL, Sladek CD, Blair ML. Adrenergic control of renin in euhydrated and water-deprived conscious dogs. Am J Physiol. 1988 Dec; 255(6 Pt 1):E793-800.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Sladek CD, Blair ML, Sterling C, Mangiapane ML. Attenuation of spontaneous hypertension in rats by a vasopressin antagonist. Hypertension. 1988 Nov; 12(5):506-12.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Sladek CD, Devine MA, Felten SY, Aravich PF, Blair ML. Abnormalities in hypothalamic and neurohypophysial vasopressin content are not a consequence of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Brain Res. 1988 Mar 29; 445(1):39-46.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Sladek CD, Chen YH, Aravich PF, Blair ML. Osmotic regulation of vasopressin and renin in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 1987 Nov; 10(5):476-83.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Fink GD, Pawloski CM, Blair ML, Mangiapane ML. The area postrema in deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension in rats. Hypertension. 1987 Jun; 9(6 Pt 2):III206-9.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Sladek CD, Blair ML, Mangiapane M. Evidence against a pressor role for vasopressin in spontaneous hypertension. Hypertension. 1987 Apr; 9(4):332-8.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Davis BJ, Blair ML, Sladek JR, Sladek CD. Effects of lesions of hypothalamic catecholamines on blood pressure, fluid balance, vasopressin and renin in the rat. Brain Res. 1987 Mar 3; 405(1):1-15.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Blair ML, Chen YH, Hisa H. Elevation of plasma renin activity by alpha-adrenoceptor agonists in conscious dogs. Am J Physiol. 1986 Dec; 251(6 Pt 1):E695-702.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Sladek CD, Blair ML, Chen YH, Rockhold RW. Vasopressin and renin response to plasma volume loss in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol. 1986 Mar; 250(3 Pt 2):H443-52.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Blair ML, Chen YH, Izzo JL. Influence of renal perfusion pressure on alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation of renin release. Am J Physiol. 1985 Mar; 248(3 Pt 1):E317-26.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Sladek CD, Blair ML. Cholinergic stimulation of vasopressin release in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 1984 Nov-Dec; 6(6 Pt 1):855-60.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Chen YH, Blair ML, Izzo JL. Renal norepinephrine overflow during graded renal nerve stimulation before and after beta-adrenoceptor blockade. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1984 Nov; 11(3):285-95.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Blair ML. Stimulation of renin secretion by alpha-adrenoceptor agonists. Am J Physiol. 1983 Jan; 244(1):E37-44.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Sladek CD, Blair ML, Ramsay DJ. Further studies on the role of angiotensin in the osmotic control of vasopressin release by the organ-cultured rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. Endocrinology. 1982 Aug; 111(2):599-607.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Kass RS, Blair ML. Effects of angiotensin II on membrane current in cardiac Purkinje fibers. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1981 Sep; 13(9):797-809.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Blair ML. Inhibition of renin secretion by intrarenal alpha-adrenoceptor blockade. Am J Physiol. 1981 Jun; 240(6):E682-8.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Sladek CD, McNeill TH, Gregg CM, Blair ML, Baggs RB. Vasopressin and renin response to dehydration in aged rats. Neurobiol Aging. 1981; 2(4):293-302.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Blair ML, Reid IA, Keil LC, Ganong WF. Role of peripheral adrenoreceptors and vasopressin in the suppression of plasma renin activity by L-dopa in carbidopa-treated dogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1979 Sep; 210(3):368-72.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Blair ML, Reid IA, Ganong WF. Effect of L-dopa on plasma renin activity with and without inhibition of extracerebral dopa decarboxylase in dogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1977 Jul; 202(1):209-15.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Blair ML, Feigl EO, Smith OA. Elevation of plasma renin activity during avoidance performance in baboons. Am J Physiol. 1976 Sep; 231(3):772-6.
    View in: PubMed

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