Tests and Procedures A diagnosis of a rheumatologic or immunologic disorder is based on your child's medical history, symptoms, a complete physical examination and results of laboratory tests such as: Blood and urine tests to look for indications of inflammation, infection, other measures of immune function, and certain genetic markers. Imaging techniques (such as x-rays, CT scans, or MRIs) to help your child's physician see what's happening to your child's joint(s) and other parts of the body. Joint aspiration (arthrocentesis), in which a sample of fluid is removed with a needle, to help identify the cause of inflammation. Injections of inflamed joints can also be part of therapy. More information. Biopsy of select body organ systems. After a diagnosis, your physician will recommend treatment designed specifically for your child. Many children are treated with physical and occupational therapy, exercise and medications (both oral and by injection) to reduce pain and inflammation and improve joint and other organ system function. In addition, some of the treatment procedures we provide include: Joint aspirations and injections. Joint aspiration and injection removes excess and often inflamed fluid from the affected joint, followed by injection of high potency corticosteroid (e.g., triamcinolone hexacetomide) to provide a strong anti-inflammatory effect and rapid (and typically long lasting) relief of pain and inflammation. Injections can be used for inflammation of a bursa (bursitis), a tendon sheath (tendonitis), or a joint (arthritis). Medications given intravenously include Infliximab (Remicaid®), Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan®) and Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG). Splints and Braces Fabrication When necessary, children are referred to orthopedists for surgical procedures related to diagnosis and/or treatment of arthritis. Most children do not require this level of intervention.