It is possible to obtain Ph.D. training after obtaining the M.D. degree. The Department of Anesthesiology coordinates and supports a graduate research training program that leads to a Ph.D. degree in a basic science, and the Department of Pharmacology and Physiology participates in this program. Anesthesiology residents or fellows in the TAPS program can use credits obtained during medical school towards the course requirements of the Ph.D. degree as defined above. The program for training is individualized for the student depending on their background and previous experience. Thus the specific course requirements are defined during the application process. Once accepted, students usually rotate through 3 laboratories before selecting an advisor. Participants will be allowed to complete the requirements for residency or fellowship while working on the Ph.D. degree and would also be permitted to work one day per week clinically once they have finished their clinical training.