High Blood Pressure: Kids Can Have It, Too
High blood pressure (hypertension) affects about 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. But, this
health problem doesn’t just affect adults. The number of kids with high blood pressure
is going up. This may be because of the growing number of kids who are overweight.
Poor diets and decreased physical activity are having a harmful effect on kids' health.
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease. It is also the main
risk factor for stroke. Kids with high blood pressure have a greater risk for high
blood pressure as adults. High blood pressure in childhood is also linked to hardening
of the arteries (atherosclerosis) in early adulthood.
Blood pressure checkups
Systolic pressure is the top number in a blood pressure reading. This number is the
pressure in arteries when the heart contracts. Diastolic pressure is the bottom number
in a blood pressure reading. This is the pressure in the arteries between heartbeats,
when the heart relaxes.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends children and teens (older than
3 years of age) have blood pressure screenings at their yearly well-child visit. Blood
pressure should be checked in all children and teens older than 3 years of age at
every healthcare encounter if they are obese, are taking medicine known to increase
blood pressure, have kidney disease, diabetes, or a history of aortic arch obstruction
or coarctation. Normal blood pressure in kids depends on their gender, age, and height.
Your child's healthcare provider will evaluate your child's blood pressure based on
his or her age, gender, and height percentile. This is called a blood pressure percentile.
Your child's blood pressure is considered high if the blood pressure percentile is
95% or higher measured on 3 separate occasions.
Treatment for kids
Treatment for high blood pressure in children involves lowering blood pressure to
goal. Your child's healthcare provider may also check for other conditions that may
lead to high blood pressure such as kidney or endocrine diseases.
Parents and healthcare providers should urge kids with high blood pressure to make
lifestyle changes. This includes losing weight, exercising more, and eating a healthier
diet. In some cases, your child's healthcare provider may also give your child medicine
to help control blood pressure.
Regular exercise helps control weight and may keep blood pressure in check. Regular
exercise means 30 to 60 minutes of physical activity on most days. Activities that
involve sitting should be limited to less than 2 hours a day.
A healthy diet for a child with high blood pressure should include:
Fresh vegetables and fruits
Nonfat milk, cheese, and other dairy products
Lean, unprocessed protein and meats
Very little salt, saturated fats, and sugar