Trichomoniasis in Teens
Trichomoniasis, known as trich, is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD). It's
caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It can cause vaginal redness and swelling
(inflammation) in women. In men it can cause painful urination. By some estimates,
millions of people have trich. But only about 1/3 of them have any symptoms. Experts
estimate that at least 25% of new infections occurs in teen girls.
This STD is not a life-threatening illness, and it is easy to cure. But it's important
to get it treated right away. That’s because trich can make it easier for a teenage
girl or woman to contract HIV during sex. In pregnant women, the infection is linked
to preterm birth and babies that are smaller than normal babies. Both conditions are
linked to health problems in newborns.
Trich is passed from one person to another through unprotected sexual contact. Men
and women can both get this infection. Women are most likely to contract an infection
in their vagina or vulva. Men are usually infected in their urethra. This is the tube
inside the penis that carries semen as well as urine.
What are the symptoms of trich infection?
Most people who have a trich infection don't have symptoms. If symptoms occur, they
may begin anywhere from a few days to months after infection.
Symptoms in women:
Itching or irritation in the vagina
A bad-smelling discharge that is frothy and yellow or greenish
Burning feeling in the vagina
Symptoms in men:
Symptoms in both:
Without treatment, the infection can linger for years.
When to seek medical care
Call the healthcare provider if your child or teen is having the above symptoms. If
your child is an older teen girl, her healthcare provider may refer her to a gynecologist
for testing and treatment.
How is trich diagnosed?
At the doctor's office, the diagnosis may be made by:
Physical exam, exam of genitals, and, in females, an internal pelvic exam to look
for small red sores in the vagina.
Discussion of symptoms.
Taking samples to analyze for the presence of infection. Swabs of the urethra or vagina
may be needed to get these samples. Teenagers often find these exams uncomfortable. In
some situations, teenage women may be allowed to help obtain the samples themselves.
Discussion of sexual activity. Although sexually transmitted infections are common
among teens that are sexually active by choice, they also occur among children and
teens that have been abused. Your teen's doctor or nurse may ask questions about your
child's sexual history. If you suspect abuse, ask for help.
How is trich treated?
Treatment of trich includes:
Prescription medicine. Your teen's healthcare provider may recommend an antibiotic (metronidazole) to treat
the infection. Your teen should be sure to take all the medicine as prescribed, even
if he or she feels better. Your teen should absolutely not drink any alcohol while
on metronidazole because he or she can become very sick. A teen girl should tell her
healthcare provider if she is pregnant or think she might be pregnant. Certain medicines should
be avoided during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Avoiding reinfection. About 20% of people get the infection again after being treated. Your teen's partner
should be treated at the same time. Both of them should avoid sexual intercourse until
the treatment is finished and the symptoms have gone away.
Preventing future infections. Learning about not having sex (abstinence) or having safe, protected sex is also important.
Can trich be prevented?
The safe sex habits that your child needs to prevent trich are the same ones that
can prevent any STD. Have a discussion with your teen about prevention. Think about
this as a chance to reinforce your values about sexual activity and protection. Important
prevention tips are:
Abstinence. The best way to avoid trich and other STDs is to not have sex.
Talk about sexual histories. Teach your child that if he or she is planning to have sex with someone, he or she
should find out about his or her partner's sexual history. Agreeing to get tested
for STDs together, before having sex, would be ideal.
Protected sex. Talk with your teen about how to have safe and protected sex. He or she should always
use a new, latex condom for sexual intercourse to prevent infection. Condoms may not
protect against all trich infections, however. Also remind teens that IUDs, shots,
a diaphragm, spermicides, douching, and oral birth control methods like the pill do
not prevent infection.
Say no to unwanted sex. Remind your teen that he or she does not have to have sex or accept any unwanted
sexual contact from anyone. It is critically important to report rape or abuse if
Report any unusual symptoms. If your teen again has unusual itching or burning in the genitals, it's important
to see his or her healthcare provider right away. This could be a sign of reinfection.
Make sure your child has regular healthcare provider appointments and pelvic exams.
Even if your teen seems completely healthy, regular exams are a good way to find any