Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
Does this test have other names?
Metabolic panel, CMP, chem 14, chemistry panel, chemistry screen, (formerly SMAC,
sequential multiple analyzer chemistry)
What is this test?
This test is a screening panel of 14 tests that look at your metabolism.
Your body gets energy from food through a process called metabolism. The tests in
this panel help see how well your liver and kidneys are working. These are two major
organs involved in metabolism.
These tests also measure your electrolyte and acid/base balance, your blood sugar,
and your blood proteins. Electrolytes are mineral salts that help move nutrients into
your cells and move waste products out of your cells. Electrolytes also help keep
your body's fluid and acidity (pH) levels where they should be.
Most labs do the same 14 tests, but these may be changed depending on what your healthcare
provider is looking for. They may also vary slightly between labs. The 14 tests that
are included in most CMPs are:
Albumin, a liver protein
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Carbon dioxide, an electrolyte
Chloride, an electrolyte
Potassium, an electrolyte
Sodium, an electrolyte
Why do I need this test?
You may have this test as part of a routine physical. You may also have this test
done to check for kidney and liver diseases. It can also check on many other problems,
If you take medicines for high blood pressure, you may have this test to see how your
kidneys and liver are working. You may also have this test if you take other medicines
that can affect your kidneys or liver.
What other tests might I have along with this test?
Your healthcare provider may also order other tests to look at how well your liver
and kidneys are working. These tests may include:
Your healthcare provider may also order other blood tests to check for iron deficiency,
anemia, and other disorders:
What do my test results mean?
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses
to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you
may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your healthcare
Normal findings for the 14 tests are:
Albumin: 3.5 to 5.0 grams per deciliter (g/dL)
ALP: 30 to 120 international units/liter (IU/L)
ALT: 4 to 36 IU/L
AST: 0 to 35 IU/L
BUN: 10 to 20 milligram/per deciliter (mg/dL)
Calcium: 9.0 to 10.5 mg/dL
Carbon dioxide: 23 to 30 millimoles per liter (mmol/L)
Chloride: 96 to 106 mmol/L
Creatinine: 0.5 to 1.1 mg/dL (females), 0.6 to 1.2 mg/dL (males)
Glucose test: less than 110 mg/dL
Potassium test: 3.5 to 5.0 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L)
Sodium: 136 to 145 mEq/L
Total bilirubin: 0.3 to 1.0 mg/dL
Total protein: 6.4 to 8.3 g/dL
If your results are abnormal or combinations of abnormal levels, it may mean you have
problem, such as diabetes, liver disease, or kidney disease. You may need more tests
to confirm or rule out specific diagnoses.
How is this test done?
The test requires a blood sample, which is drawn through a needle from a vein in your
Does this test pose any risks?
Taking a blood sample with a needle carries risks that include bleeding, infection,
bruising, or feeling dizzy. When the needle pricks your arm, you may feel a slight
stinging sensation or pain. Afterward, the site may be slightly sore.
What might affect my test results?
Eating or exercising before the test can affect your results. Taking certain medicines
can also affect your results. These include steroids, insulin, and hormones.
If you are pregnant or dehydrated, your results may be affected.
How do I get ready for this test?
You should not eat or drink anything but water for 10 to 12 hours before this test.
Don't exercise before the test. In addition, be sure your healthcare provider knows
about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes
medicines that don't need a prescription and any illicit drugs you may use.