Based on the information you provided, you have one or more risk factors for cervical
cancer. A risk factor is any condition or behavior that increases your likelihood
of developing a disease. Having a risk factor does not necessarily mean you will develop
a disease. Knowing what your risk factors are helps your healthcare provider schedule
appropriate screenings and recommend preventive measures. It also helps you identify
things you can change to help lower your risk for cervical cancer.
For cervical cancer, the primary risk factor is infection with certain high-risk types
of HPV, or human papillomavirus. Other secondary risk factors also come into play.
Based on the answers to your assessment, your risk factors, if any, are listed below.
Understanding risk factors for cervical cancer
The most important risk factor for cervical cancer is being infected with the human
papillomavirus (HPV). Most women diagnosed with cervical cancer have this virus. HPV
is passed on through skin contact with an infected part of the body, usually on or
near the sexual organs. Your risk of getting this virus increases if you have sex
at an early age, if you have more than one sexual partner during your lifetime, if
your partner has had multiple sex partners, or if you have sex with uncircumcised
HPV refers to a group of more than 150 types of viruses. Some of these are low risk
and cause genital warts. Only a few HPVs cause cervical cancer. In fact, about two-thirds
of all cervical cancer cases are caused by only two types, HPV 16 and HPV 18. Yet
most women who are infected with these types of HPV don't develop cervical cancer.
HPV infection does not always cause warts or other symptoms, so you can pass it to
another person without knowing it. Although condoms protect against many sexually
transmitted diseases (STDs), they don't offer total protection against HPV. This is
because HPV can be passed on by skin contact with an infected area of the body that
can't be covered with a condom. Even when no warts are present, HPV can stay in the
skin and be passed on. A vaccine for HPV is available for people between ages 9 and
26. The vaccine is intended to be given to people before they become sexually active.
According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), other factors that increase your risk
for cervical cancer are:
- HIV infection. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, damages the body's immune system. This and any
other condition that weakens the immune system puts a woman at greater risk for HPV
infection, which may increase the risk for cervical cancer.
- Chlamydia. Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease with few symptoms. Recent research
suggests that a past or current chlamydia infection may put a woman at greater risk
for cervical cancer.
- Family history of cervical cancer or cervical dysplasia. Women whose mother or sisters have had cervical cancer or cervical dysplasia are
at greater risk themselves for cervical cancer. It has been suggested by some researchers
that some women may not fight off HPV infection as well as others owing to an inherited
- Smoking. Women who smoke are about twice as likely as nonsmokers to get cervical cancer. Tobacco
smoke contains many cancer-causing chemicals that are carried throughout the body
in the blood. These chemicals have been found in the cervix of women who smoke.
- Poor diet. Women who consume few fruits or vegetables may be at higher risk for cervical cancer.
The importance of screening
The increased use of the Pap test has dramatically reduced deaths from cervical cancer.
Pap tests find early cancers and changes in the cells of the cervix that could lead
to cancer. Cervical cancer develops slowly, usually taking years to progress from
a precancerous condition to cancer. For many women, the precancerous changes will
not progress to cancer or will go away without any treatment. Precancerous conditions
can also be treated, however, preventing cancer from developing.
The American Cancer Society recommends that:
- All women at average risk should have Pap tests starting at age 21.
- Women between ages 21 and 29 should have a Pap test every 3 years.
- Women between the ages of 30 and 65 should have a Pap test plus an HPV test (called
“co-testing”) every 5 years. This is the preferred approach, but it is also acceptable
to continue to have Pap tests alone every 3 years.
- Women older than age 65 who have had regular screening with normal results should
not be screened for cervical cancer. Once screening is stopped, it should not be started
- A woman who has had a hysterectomy (with removal of the cervix) for reasons not related
to cervical cancer and who has no history of cervical cancer or serious precancer
should not be screened.
- A woman who has been vaccinated against HPV should still follow the screening recommendations
for her age group.
Tips for an accurate Pap test
To make sure your Pap test results are accurate, the ACS recommends the following:
- Don't schedule your test for a time when you are having your menstrual period. The
best time is at least 5 days after your period stops.
- Don't douche within 2 days (48 hours) of your test. In general, douching is not recommended,
because it disrupts the natural bacteria and acidity in the vagina. This can irritate
the vagina and actually increase the risk for certain infections.
- Don't have sexual intercourse within 2 days (48 hours) of your test.
- Don't use tampons, vaginal medicines, foams, creams, or jellies within 2 days (48
hours) of your test.
Pap test, pelvic exam: The difference
A pelvic exam is not a Pap test, but both are usually done during the same office
visit. The Pap test is often done first. For the Pap test, the healthcare provider
inserts an instrument called a speculum into the vagina to hold it open, then gently
scrapes or brushes the cervix with another instrument to remove a small number of
cells. This sample is sent to the lab. The HPV test can be done at the same time as
the Pap test, and it's done the same way. During a pelvic exam, a healthcare provider
checks the health of a woman's uterus and ovaries by feeling them through the belly
(abdomen). For the exam, the provider inserts 2 fingers into the vagina and presses
to steady the uterus. The other hand pushes on the abdomen to feel the uterus and
ovaries. A pelvic exam cannot find cervical cancer in its early stages or abnormal