Common Benign Lumps
What are some common types of benign breast lumps?
Two of the most common causes of benign single breast lumps are cysts and fibroadenomas.
In addition, there are several other conditions that can present themselves as lumps,
such as fat necrosis and sclerosing adenosis. The list of benign lumps of the breast
is long. Only your health care provider can diagnose your breast lump.
What is a cyst?
A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. They most often happen
in women between the ages of 35 and 50 and are common in those nearing menopause.
The cysts often enlarge and become tender and painful just before your period. They may
seem to appear overnight. Cysts are rarely cancerous (malignant) and may be caused
by blocked breast glands.
Cysts can feel either soft or hard. When close to the surface of the breast, cysts
can feel like a large blister, smooth on the outside, but fluid-filled on the inside.
When they are deep in breast tissue, cysts will feel like hard lumps because they
are covered with tissue.
How are cysts diagnosed and treated?
Your health care provider may find a cyst during a physical exam. He or she may confirm
the diagnosis with a mammogram or ultrasound. You may also have a fine-needle aspiration.
This involves guiding a very fine needle into the cyst and drawing fluid from it.
This also serves as the treatment for this condition. Once the cyst is aspirated,
it collapses and disappears. But, cysts can reappear later, in which case they are
simply drained again. Cysts are seldom cancerous (malignant).
What is a fibroadenoma?
Fibroadenomas are solid, smooth, firm, noncancerous (benign) lumps that are most commonly
found in women in their 20s and 30s. They are the most common benign lumps in women
and can occur at any age. They are increasingly being seen in postmenopausal women
who are taking hormone therapy.
The painless lump feels rubbery and moves around freely. You may find one yourself.
Fibroadenomas vary in size and can grow anywhere in the breast tissue.
How are fibroadenomas diagnosed and treated?
Your health care provider may diagnose this type of lump simply by feeling it. But,
he or she will want to confirm the diagnosis with a mammogram or ultrasound and fine-needle
aspiration. Sometimes, in very young women, the fibroadenoma is not removed. However,
since sometimes these tumors enlarge with pregnancy and breastfeeding, your provider
may suggest having it surgically removed.
While fibroadenoma does not lead to cancer, there is a type of fibroadenoma that has
been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly in women with a family history
of the disease.
What is fat necrosis?
Fat necrosis is a condition in which painless, round, firm lumps caused by damaged
and disintegrating fatty tissues form in the breast tissue. Fat necrosis often occurs
in women with very large breasts or who have had a bruise or blow to the breast. This
condition may also be the result of a lumpectomy and radiation from a prior cancerous
lump. In some cases, health care providers will watch the lump through several menstrual
cycles. He or she may want to do a mammogram before deciding whether to remove it.
These lumps are not cancerous and they do not increase your risk of cancer.
What is sclerosing adenosis?
Sclerosing adenosis is a breast condition that involves excessive growth of tissues
in the breast's lobules. This often causes breast pain. While these changes in the
breast tissue are very small, they may show up on mammograms as calcifications and
can produce lumps. Usually a biopsy is needed to rule out cancer. In addition, because
the condition can be mistaken for cancer, the lumps are usually removed through surgical