Hookworm Infection: Creeping Eruption
What is creeping eruption?
Creeping eruption is a skin infection caused by hookworms. The infection is also called
cutaneous larva migrans or sandworm disease.
Creeping eruption causes severe itching, blisters, and a red growing, winding rash.
The rash can grow up to 1 to 2 centimeters per day. The infection usually appears
on areas of the body that have been exposed to the contaminated ground. These include
the feet, legs, buttocks, or back.
What causes creeping eruption?
Creeping eruption is caused by hookworms. Hookworm eggs are found in the feces of
dogs and cats. After the eggs hatch, they mature into worms. The infection can be
spread to people from skin contact with the worms in the feces. Hookworms may be found
in moist, sandy areas. Walking barefoot on contaminated grounds in warm climates is
how most people get this condition.
What are the symptoms of creeping eruption?
The rash usually shows up 1 to 5 days after you have been exposed to the hookworms.
But sometimes it can take more than 1 month to show up. Each person may have slightly
different symptoms. Symptoms may include:
- Winding, snake-like rash. This is because the hookworm burrows along a path that creates
a winding rash.
The symptoms of creeping eruption may look like other skin conditions. Always see
your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is creeping eruption diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will usually make the diagnosis based on your medical history
and a physical exam.
How is creeping eruption treated?
Creeping eruption may be treated with antiparasitic medicines (orally or topical creams)
such as albendazole, and ivermectin, and thiabendazole. This condition is self-limiting
and will disappear over weeks to months even if not treated.
Can creeping eruption be prevented?
People are rarely exposed to hookworms in the U.S. This is because most cats and dogs
are dewormed. Public areas are also kept clean. Infection is more likely in tropical
and semitropical countries. Most cases are reported in people who have traveled to
the Caribbean, Africa, Asia, and South America. Since the hookworm larvae often enter
the body through bare feet, wearing shoes will help stop infection.
Key points about creeping eruption
- Creeping eruption is a skin infection caused by hookworms.
- Hookworms are found in dogs and cats.
- Exposure to moist sand that has been contaminated by dog or cat feces can cause creeping
- Creeping eruption appears as a winding, snake-like rash with blisters and itching.
- Creeping eruption may be treated with antiparasitic medicines.
- Creeping eruption is not common in the U.S., but it affects travelers to the Caribbean,
Africa, Asia, and South America.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.