Anatomy of the Brain
What is the central nervous system (CNS)?
The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is an important organ that
controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, respirations, temperature,
hunger, and every process that regulates our body.
What are the different parts of the brain?
The brain can be divided into the cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum:
Cerebrum. The cerebrum (supratentorial or front of brain) is composed of the right and left
hemispheres. Functions of the cerebrum include: initiation of movement, coordination
of movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, judgment, reasoning, problem solving,
emotions, and learning.
Brainstem. The brainstem (midline or middle of brain) includes the midbrain, the pons, and the
medulla. Functions of this area include: movement of the eyes and mouth, relaying
sensory messages (such as hot, pain, and loud), respirations, consciousness, cardiac
function, involuntary muscle movements, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.
Cerebellum. The cerebellum (infratentorial or back of brain) is located at the back of the head.
Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movements and to maintain posture,
balance, and equilibrium.
More specifically, other parts of the brain include the following:
Pons. A deep part of the brain, located in the brainstem, the pons contains many of the
control areas for eye and face movements.
Medulla. The lowest part of the brainstem, the medulla is the most vital part of the entire
brain and contains important control centers for the heart and lungs.
Spinal cord. A large bundle of nerve fibers located in the back that extends from the base of the
brain to the lower back, the spinal cord carries messages to and from the brain and
the rest of the body.
Frontal lobe. The largest section of the brain located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe
is involved in personality characteristics and movement. Recognition of smell usually
involves parts of the frontal lobe.
Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person to identify objects
and understand spatial relationships (where one's body is compared to objects around
the person). The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in
Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, these temporal lobes are involved in memory, speech, musical
rhythm, and some degree of smell recognition.