Diagnosis and Treatment for Migraines
How are migraine headaches diagnosed?
In order to get an accurate diagnosis it is important to be able to describe your
migraine symptoms to your healthcare provider. It is helpful to track migraine occurrences
(dates and times) and the details associated with migraines.
Take note of the following:
What time of day do the headaches happen?
What is the specific location of the headaches?
What do the headaches feel like?
How long do the headaches last?
Have there been changes in behavior or personality?
Do changes in position cause the headaches?
Do you have trouble sleeping?
Do you have a history of stress?
Are you currently experiencing an unusual amount of stress in your work, family, or
Is there a history of head trauma?
Procedures used to diagnose a migraine are generally used to rule out other possible
causes of the symptoms. In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination,
some procedures that may be used include:
Blood tests. Various blood chemistry and other laboratory tests may be run to check for underlying
Sinus X-rays. A diagnostic imaging procedure to evaluate for congestion or other problems that
may be corrected.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies,
and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.
Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan). A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology
to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan
shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat,
and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays.
Spinal tap (also called a lumbar puncture). A special needle is placed into the lower back, into the spinal canal, which is the
area around the spinal cord. The pressure in the spinal canal and brain can then be
measured. A small amount of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) can be removed and sent for
testing to determine if there is an infection or other problems. CSF is the fluid
that bathes the brain and spinal cord.
Treatment for migraines
Specific treatment for headaches will be determined by your healthcare provider based
Your age, overall health, and medical history
Severity and frequency of the symptoms
Your tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
Your opinion or preference
Treatment may include:
The ultimate goal of treatment is to stop headaches from happening. Adequate headache
management depends on the accurate identification of the type of headache and may
Avoiding known triggers, such as certain foods and beverages, lack of sleep, and fasting
Changing eating habits
Resting in a quiet, dark environment
Medicines, as recommended by your healthcare provider
Migraine headaches may need specific medicine management including:
Abortive medicines. Medicines, prescribed by your healthcare provider, that act on specific receptors
in blood vessels in the head and can stop a headache in progress.
Rescue medicines. Medicines purchased over-the-counter, such as analgesics (pain relievers), to stop
Preventive medicines. Medicines, prescribed by your healthcare provider, that are taken daily to reduce
the onset of severe migraine headaches.
Some migraines may need immediate medical attention, including hospitalization for
observation, diagnostic testing, or even surgery. Treatment is individualized, depending
on the severity and frequency of symptoms.