What is rotavirus?
Rotavirus is a contagious virus and, among children, is the leading cause of severe
infectious diarrhea. In some infants and children, diarrhea may be so severe that
they become dehydrated and may require emergency care or hospitalization.
Prior to the use of the rotavirus vaccine in 2006, as many as 55,000 to 70,000 children
were hospitalized each year in the U.S. due to rotavirus infections.
The virus peaks during the cooler months of the year starting in the fall and ending
in the spring.
The majority of children acquire the virus between 3 months and 35 months.
A child or adult may become infected with rotavirus more than once, but, usually,
the initial case is the most severe and subsequent infections are milder.
How is rotavirus spread?
Rotavirus is most often spread through fecal-oral contact. Usually, this occurs from
poor hand washing or from eating or drinking contaminated food or water. The virus
may live on things, such as doorknobs, toys, and other hard surfaces, for quite some
time. For this reason, outbreaks can occur in child care centers and within families
who share a household. The hospitalized child will need to be isolated from other
children to prevent transmission of the virus.
What are the symptoms of rotavirus?
The symptoms for rotavirus can range from mild to severe. The following are the most
common symptoms of rotavirus. However, each child may experience symptoms differently.
Symptoms may include.
Fever, which usually subsides within the first couple of days
Nausea and vomiting
Diarrhea (usually watery and frequent; may last between three to eight days)
Dehydration, which can occur quickly, especially in infants. Symptoms of dehydration
Lethargy or sleepiness
Pale color to skin or mottling
Less elasticity in the skin
Eyes appear deeply sunken
Baby's fontanelle (or soft spot) may feel sunken
Decreased or absent tears
Decreased urine output or fewer wet diapers
How is rotavirus diagnosed?
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, a stool culture
may be used to detect the virus.
What is the treatment for rotavirus?
There is no cure for rotavirus, so treatment of the disease is supportive (aimed at
treating the symptoms present). Treatment may include:
Oral rehydration with water, formula, breast milk and/or special electrolyte--containing
fluids (fluids containing sugars and salts), such as Pedialyte (very young children
should NOT be rehydrated with soda, juices, or sports drinks)
Continue feeding your child solid foods (if he or she is able to tolerate it)
It is no longer recommended to restrict a child's diet when he or she has diarrhea.
Restricting the child's diet may actually make the diarrhea last longer.
About one out of every 70 children may develop severe enough dehydration to require
hospitalization. In these children treatment may include:
Intravenous (IV) fluids
Nasogastric (NG) tube feedings. A small tube may be placed into your child's stomach through his or her nose so that
formula or fluids may be administered.
Blood work. The blood work measures your child's electrolyte levels--sugar, salt, and other chemicals
in the blood.
How can rotavirus be prevented?
The following will help to prevent the spread of the rotavirus:
Proper hygiene and hand-washing technique--washing with soap and water before eating
and after going to the bathroom
Cleaning hard surfaces, toys, and doorknobs
Proper handling and disposal of dirty diapers, even after your child no longer has
If your child develops rotavirus, he or she may not be able to attend day care or
school while he or she is ill. If your child is hospitalized, he or she will be isolated
from other children to prevent an outbreak in the hospital.
A rotavirus vaccine that was approved by the FDA in 1998 was pulled from the market
in 1999 because of an association between the vaccine and an increased risk for intussusception
in infants age 1 and younger. (Intussusception means a portion of the intestine telescopes
within another immediately adjacent portion of intestine.) However, no direct link
was established to the vaccine as a cause of intussusception.
The FDA has since then approved two oral rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq and Rotarix.
No risk for intussusception was found in clinical trials with the vaccines in the
United States. Studies in certain other countries have shown a possible association
with intussuseption. The CDC recommends that infants receive either the RotaTeq oral
vaccine at age 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months or the Rotarix oral vaccine at age 2
months and 4 months.