Learning Disorders in Children
What is a learning disorder in children?
A learning disorder is when a child has trouble learning in certain school subjects.
Your child may have problems with reading, math, or writing. His or her skill is below
what is expected for the child’s age, grade level, and intelligence. The problem is
bad enough to interfere with school or everyday activities.
What causes a learning disorder in a child?
Experts believe a learning disorder happens because of a problem in the nervous system.
The problem may be in the structure of the brain. Or the chemicals in the brain may
not work right. As a result, a child with a learning disorder receives, processes,
or communicates information in a different way.
Which children are at risk for a learning disorder?
Learning disorders may run in families. They may also be linked to:
- Problems during pregnancy
- Problems during birth or early infancy
- Other health conditions, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
What are the symptoms of a learning disorder in a child?
Each child’s symptoms may vary. Common symptoms are:
- Reading disorder. A child reads below the expected level given his or her age, grade in school, and
intelligence. Children with this problem read slowly and have trouble understanding
what they read. They may have trouble with word recognition. They may confuse words
that look alike. This disorder is sometimes called dyslexia.
- Mathematics disorder. A child has problems with numbers. He or she may have trouble counting, copying numbers
the right way, adding and carrying numbers, learning multiplication tables, and recognizing
- Disorder of written expression. A child has trouble with writing skills. He or she struggles with grammar and punctuation,
spelling, paragraph organization, or written composition.
How is a learning disorder diagnosed in a child?
Parents or teachers may first spot the signs of a learning disorder in a child. The
child may often have trouble with:
- Reading, spelling, writing, or doing math problems
- Understanding or following directions
- Distinguishing right from left
- Reversing letters or numbers. Examples are confusing b and d, or 12 and 21.
A child psychiatrist or other mental health expert can diagnose a learning disorder.
He or she will talk with parents and teachers. The child will also need educational
and mental health testing.
Public schools have a duty to check children with certain learning problems. And when
it is appropriate, these schools must also offer treatment. Check with your school
to find out how to request an evaluation. An evaluation identifies whether your child
has a learning disorder. It also finds learning strengths and weaknesses. The results
help decide on your child’s educational needs and best placement at school.
How is a learning disorder treated in a child?
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also
depend on how severe the condition is.
Parents, teachers, and mental health experts work together to help a child. Treatments
- Individual or group classes
- Special classes or resources
- Speech therapy
- Family therapy
- Medicines, if a child is easily distracted or hyperactive
How can I help prevent a learning disorder in my child?
Experts don’t know how to prevent learning disorders in children. But spotting and
treating one early can ease symptoms and enhance your child’s normal development.
It can also improve your child’s quality of life.
How can I help my child live with a learning disorder?
A learning disorder has no cure. But early diagnosis and treatment can make it less
severe. It will also improve your child’s learning potential and quality of life.
You play a critical part in your child’s treatment and well-being. Here are things
you can do to help your child:
- Keep all appointments with your child’s healthcare provider.
- Work with your child’s healthcare providers and school to develop a treatment plan.
Your child likely will get care from a team that may include the primary care provider,
psychologists, therapists, social workers, and experts from your child’s school. Your
child’s care team will depend on your child’s needs and how serious the learning disorder
- Reach out for support from local community services. Being in touch with other parents
who have a child with a learning disorder may be helpful.
Key points about a learning disorder in a child
- A learning disorder is when a child has problems with reading, math, or writing.
- It may be caused by a problem in how the brain is structured or in how the chemicals
in the brain work.
- A child psychiatrist or other mental health expert can diagnose a learning disorder.
He or she does an evaluation to find a child’s learning strengths and weaknesses.
- Treatment may include therapy, special classes, or medicine.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child.
Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose
for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important
if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.