What is Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease?
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (or Perthes disease) is a rare condition in children in
which the ball-shaped head of the thigh bone, referred to as the femoral head, loses
its blood supply. As a result, the femoral head collapses. The body will absorb the
dead bone cells and replace them with new bone cells. The new bone cells will eventually
reshape the femoral head of the thigh bone. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease causes the
hip joint to become painful and stiff for a period of time.
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease goes through four phases of changes that affect the head
of the femur. The phases include:
Phase 1 - Initial phase. Blood supply is absent to the femoral head and the hip joint becomes inflamed, stiff,
and painful. Portions of the bone turn into dead tissue. The ball of the thigh bone
becomes less round in appearance on X-rays. This phase can last from several months
up to 1 year.
Phase 2 - Fragmentation phase. The body cleans up the dead bone cells and replaces them with new, healthier bone
cells. The femoral head begins to remodel into a round shape again. The joint is still
irritated and painful. This phase can last from 1 to 3 years.
Phase 3 - Reossification phase. The femoral head continues to model itself back into a round shape with new bone.
This phase lasts for 1 to 3 years.
Phase 4 - Healing phase. Normal bone cells replace the new bone cells. This last phase can last a few years
to complete the healing process.
What causes Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease?
The cause of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is unknown. It is 4 times more likely to happen
in boys than girls and is uncommon in African-Americans.
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease can be seen in children 2 to 12 years of age. The majority
of cases affect only one hip.
What are the symptoms of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease?
The child typically complains of pain in his or her hip that is aggravated by activity.
Sometimes, they will also experience pain in their thigh or knee area. The child usually
walks with a limp and reports that rest will ease the pain. Over time, you may notice
muscle loss in the upper leg and hip.
The symptoms of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease may resemble other conditions or medical
problems of the hip. Always talk with your child's healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease diagnosed?
In addition to a complete medical history and physical exam, diagnostic procedures
for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease may include:
X-rays. A diagnostic test that uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images
of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
Bone scans. A nuclear imaging method to evaluate any degenerative and/or arthritic changes in
the joints; to detect bone diseases and tumors; to determine the cause of bone pain
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies,
and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.
Treatment for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease
Specific treatment for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease will be discussed with you by your
child's healthcare provider based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
The extent of the condition
Your child's tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
The goal of treatment is to preserve the roundness of the femoral head and to prevent
deformity while the condition runs its course. Treatment choices are dependent on
the amount of hip pain, stiffness, and X-ray changes over time, as well as how much
of the femoral head has collapsed.
Typically, the first step of treatment is to regain hip motion and eliminate pain
that results from the tight muscles around the hip and the inflammation inside the
joint. Treatment may include:
Medicines, such as ibuprofen
Casting or bracing (to hold the femoral head in the hip socket, permit limited joint
movement, and allow the femur to remold itself into a round shape again)
Surgery (to hold the femoral head in the hip socket)
Physical therapy (to keep the hip muscles strong and to promote hip movement)
Crutches or wheelchair (in some cases)
Long-term outlook for a child with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease
The ultimate goal in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is to diagnose the condition early
in order to allow as much time as possible to let the femoral head remodel back into
a round shape. Other treatment goals include controlling pain, maintaining hip motion,
and preventing worsening hip deformity.
The two most critical factors that determine the outcome are the child's age and how
much of the femoral head is affected by this condition.
The more severe the case, the greater the likelihood that the child may experience
limited hip motion, differences in leg lengths, and further hip problems in adulthood.