Anal Cancer: Frequently Asked Questions
These are answers to some frequently asked questions about anal cancer:
What is anal cancer?
Anal cancer is cancer that starts in the anus. The anus is at the end of the rectum.
Through it, bowel movements leave your body. Different types of tumors can form in
the anus. Some of these tumors are not cancer. These are known as benign tumors. Some
are cancer. These are called malignant tumors.
Who gets anal cancer?
Anal cancer is a rare cancer. Most people who get it are between ages 50 and 80. Slightly
more women than men get anal cancer. But the rate is increasing in men, especially
in those who have anal sex.
What are the risk factors for anal cancer?
Certain factors can make one person more likely to get anal cancer than another person.
These are called risk factors. Here are some things that may increase your risk for
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or genital warts
Multiple sex partners
Anal intercourse, especially if it’s unprotected
A weakened immune system
Repeated inflammation in the anal region
What are the symptoms of anal cancer?
These are the most common symptoms of anal cancer:
Bleeding from the rectum
Pain or pressure in the anal area
Discharge from the anus
A lump from swollen lymph nodes in the anal or groin area
Itching around the anus
Change in bowel movements
Although these are symptoms of anal cancer, they may also be caused by other, less
serious health issues. People with these symptoms should talk to a healthcare provider.
How is anal cancer diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider asks questions about your health history and family history.
He or she will also do a physical exam to check for signs of the cancer. He or she
may also order these tests:
Should everyone get a second opinion for a diagnosis of anal cancer?
Many people with cancer get a second opinion from another healthcare provider. There
are many reasons to get one. They include:
Not feeling comfortable with the treatment decision
Being diagnosed with a rare type of cancer
Having several options for how to treat the cancer
Not being able to see a cancer expert
Many people have a hard time deciding which anal cancer treatment to have. It may
help to have a second health care provider look at the diagnosis and treatment options
before starting treatment. It’s important to remember that in most cases, a short
delay in treatment will not lower the chance that it will work. Some health insurance
companies even require that a person with cancer seek a second opinion. Many insurance
companies will pay for a second opinion.
How can someone get a second opinion?
There are many ways to get a second opinion:
Ask a primary care healthcare provider. He or she may be able to suggest a specialist.
This may be a surgeon, medical oncologist, or radiation oncologist. Sometimes these
doctors work together at cancer centers or hospitals. Never be afraid to ask for a
Call the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service. The number is 800-4-CANCER
(or 800-422-6237). They have information about treatment facilities. These include
cancer centers and other programs supported by the National Cancer Institute.
Look for other options. Check with a local medical society, a nearby hospital or medical
school, or a support group to get names of healthcare providers who can give you a
second opinion. Or ask other people who've had cancer for their recommendations.
How is anal cancer treated?
Anal cancer may be treated using radiation, chemotherapy (chemo), or surgery. The
goal of radiation is to kill cancer cells by using X-rays. This is a common treatment
for anal cancer. It can be used with or without chemo. Chemo is the use of medicines
to shrink the tumor. In anal cancer, chemo combined with radiation can often cure
the cancer without the need for surgery. The goal of surgery for anal cancer is to
remove the tumor from the anus, while leaving as much of the anus as possible intact.
Healthcare providers are always finding new ways to treat anal cancer. These new methods
are tested in clinical trials. Before starting treatment, you should ask your healthcare
provider if there are any clinical trials to check on.
What's new in anal cancer research?
Cancer research should give you hope. Researchers around the world are learning more
about what causes anal cancer and are looking for ways to prevent and treat it.
Vaccines for HPV are now available. While they were developed to help prevent cervical
cancer, they might be able to prevent anal cancer as well. New medicine treatments
for people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will help delay a weakened immune
system for several years. Experts are also studying new ways to test for anal cancer
in its early stages before it has spread.
Researchers are also studying new treatments for anal cancer. Radiosensitizing agents
may make radiation work better. They are being studied with chemo and radiation in
What should I know about clinical trials for anal cancer?
Clinical trials test new kinds of cancer treatments. You may also hear them called
clinical studies. Healthcare providers use clinical trials to learn how well new treatments work and
what their side effects are. Promising treatments are ones that work better or have
fewer side effects than the current ones. People who join these trials get to use
treatments before the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves them for the
public. People who join trials also help researchers learn more about cancer and help
future people with cancer.