Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
What is age-related macular degeneration?
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that affects a person’s central
vision. AMD is the most common cause of severe eyesight loss among people age 50 and
older. Only the center of vision is affected with this disease. It is rare that people
go totally blind from it. But AMD can make it hard to read, drive, or do other daily
activities that need detailed vision.
AMD occurs when the macula is damaged. The macula is located in the center of the
retina and provides us with sight in the center of our field of vision. With less
of the macula working, central vision begins to get worse.
What causes age-related macular degeneration?
There are 2 main types of AMD. They have different causes:
Dry AMD.This type is more common. Experts don't know what causes it. The light-sensitive cells
in the macula slowly break down. It generally happens in both eyes. It is thought
that the age-related thickening of the tissue under the retina helps lead to dry AMD.
Wet AMD.This type is less common. It accounts for most severe eyesight loss caused by AMD.
New blood vessels behind the retina start to grow under the retina. They leak fluid
and blood. They can create a large blind spot in the center of the visual field.
Who is at risk for macular degeneration?
Possible risk factors for AMD are:
Being a woman
Being age 60 and older
Uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension)
High blood cholesterol levels
High C-reactive protein levels in the blood
What are the symptoms of age-related macular degeneration?
Symptoms may be a bit different for each person. Symptoms may include:
Blurry or fuzzy vision
Straight lines look wavy
Some objects look smaller than they really are
Colors look paler than normal
A dark, empty area or blind spot is in the center of vision
Quick loss of central vision, which is needed for driving, reading, recognizing faces,
and doing close-up work
One of the most common early signs of AMD is tiny yellow deposits (drusen) in the
retina. It may mean the eye is at risk for more severe AMD. These will be visible
to your healthcare provider during an eye exam.
The symptoms of AMD may seem like other eye conditions. Talk with an eye care provider
for a diagnosis.
How is age-related macular degeneration diagnosed?
In addition to a full health history and eye exam, your eye care provider may do these
tests to diagnose AMD:
Visual acuity test. The common eye chart test. It measures how well you see at different distances.
Pupil dilation. The pupil is widened with eye drops for a close-up exam of the retina.
Amsler grid. This is used to find wet AMD. You are asked to look at a grid and see if straight
lines in a grid pattern are missing or look wavy. Both of these may mean you have
Fluorescein angiography. This test is used to find wet AMD. A special dye is injected into a vein in the arm.
Pictures are then taken as the dye passes through the blood vessels in the retina.
This helps the healthcare provider evaluate if the blood vessels are leaking. It also
helps the provider figure out if the leaking can be treated.
How is age-related macular degeneration treated?
Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend
on how severe the condition is.
Treatment for wet AMD often includes shots (injections) of medicine into the eye.
This is done to stop the growth of the abnormal blood vessels under the macula. These
injections are typically painless. Treatment may also include laser surgery. A high-energy
beam of light is aimed directly onto the leaking blood vessels. This is done to stop
further leaking. But this is often not needed.
Currently there is no treatment for dry AMD. But this does not mean that your sight
will definitely be lost. Over time, central vision may be lost or reduced. Generally,
the rate of loss is slow. There are nutritional treatment choices that may slow the
What are possible complications of age-related macular degeneration?
AMD can result in severe loss of central vision. It rarely causes total blindness.
But it can make it hard to read, drive, or do other daily activities that need detailed
Living with macular degeneration
If you have already had some vision loss, talk with your provider. Ask for information
on services for people with low vision. Also ask about devices that may help you with
your daily tasks.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
If your symptoms get worse or you have new symptoms, call your healthcare provider.
Key points about age-related macular degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that affects the central vision
AMD can lead to severe loss of central vision. It rarely causes blindness.
It can make it hard to read, drive, or do other things that need detailed vision.
Risk factors include being age 50 and older, being a woman, smoking, high blood pressure,
cardiovascular disease, obesity, and high cholesterol.
There is no cure. But there are treatment choices that may stop or slow the disease
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
know what the side effects are.
Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.