What is rheumatic fever?
Rheumatic fever is a complex disease that affects the joints, skin, heart, blood
vessels, and brain. It occurs mainly in children between the ages of 5 to 15. It is
an autoimmune disease that occurs after an infection with strep (streptococcus) bacteria.
Strep infections include strep throat and scarlet fever. Rheumatic fever happens more
often in the winter and spring. This is because strep throat infections occur more
often in these seasons. Strep is contagious. This means it can be spread from child
to child. But rheumatic fever is not contagious.
What causes rheumatic fever?
Rheumatic fever is an autoimmune reaction to the strep bacteria. An autoimmune reaction
is when the body attacks its own tissues. It can be prevented if strep throat is diagnosed
right away and treated correctly with antibiotics. Rheumatic fever is not common in
Who is at risk for rheumatic fever?
Children ages 5 to 15 are most at risk for having rheumatic fever. They are most at
risk if they:
Have strep throat infections often
Have strep infections that were not treated or not treated enough
Have a family history of rheumatic fever
What are the symptoms of rheumatic fever?
The symptoms usually start about 1 to 5 weeks after a child has been infected with
strep bacteria. Each child’s symptoms may vary. Common symptoms can include:
Inflammation in joints such as the knees or ankles that causes swelling, soreness,
Small, painless, hard bumps (nodules) under the skin, often over bony areas
Unusual jerky movements, most often of the face and hands. This is often noted by
a change in a child's handwriting.
Red rash with odd edges on the torso, arms, or legs
Lack of energy (fatigue)
These symptoms can seem like other health conditions. Have your child see their healthcare
provider for a diagnosis.
How is rheumatic fever diagnosed?
Your child’s healthcare provider will take your child’s health history and do a physical
exam. Your child may also have tests such as:
Blood tests. These are done to look for signs of inflammation, recent strep infection, and other
Electrocardiogram (ECG). This is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart. It shows abnormal
rhythms and detects heart muscle damage.
Throat culture. A swab is wiped on the throat. This is done to look for the strep bacteria.
Your child's healthcare provider will look for:
Inflammation of the heart
Inflammation of more than one joint
Unusual jerky movements
Small, hard bumps under the skin
Red, irregular rash
Pain in one or more joints
Previous inflammation of the heart
Changes in the ECG pattern
Abnormal sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein in blood tests
How is rheumatic fever treated?
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also
depend on how severe the condition is.
Treatment for rheumatic fever often combines the following 3 things:
Treatment for strep. The first step is to treat the strep infection with antibiotics. This is done even
if a throat culture is negative. Your child may need to take monthly doses of antibiotics
to prevent future strep infections. This is to help prevent the rheumatic fever from
recurring and further damaging the body.
Anti-inflammatory medicines. Your child may take medicines to help decrease the swelling that occurs in the heart
muscle. These medicines also help ease joint pain.
Bed rest. The length of bed rest will depend on how severe your child's illness is. Bed rest
may range from 2 to 12 weeks.
Talk with your child’s healthcare provider about the risks, benefits, and possible
side effects of all medicines.
What are possible complications of rheumatic fever?
If the illness severely attacks a child's heart, this may damage heart valves and
cause heart disease. In this case, your child may not be allowed to do some kinds
of physical activity and sports.
If the heart were damaged, your child would need to take special care when going to
the dentist in the future. They may need to take antibiotics before having dental
work done. This helps lower the chance of an infection traveling to the heart during
a dental procedure. Talk with your child's healthcare provider for more information.
Can rheumatic fever be prevented?
Many cases of rheumatic fever may be prevented by quickly and correctly treating strep
throat with antibiotics.
Helping your child live with rheumatic fever
Having rheumatic fever increases your child's chances of having the disease again.
This is at highest risk during the first 3 years. The chance of having the disease
again lessens with age and time.
After having rheumatic fever, your child will need to take antibiotics every month.
These are to help lessen the chance of having rheumatic fever again. Often by the
time a child is 18, the antibiotic therapy may be stopped. Close follow-up with your
child's healthcare provider is needed.
When should I call my child's healthcare provider?
Call the healthcare provider if your child's symptoms get worse or they have new symptoms.
Key points about rheumatic fever
Rheumatic fever is a complex disease that affects the joints, skin, heart, blood vessels,
It occurs after an infection with strep bacteria, such as strep throat or scarlet
Symptoms may include joint inflammation, small, hard bumps under the skin, jerky movements,
a rash, and fever.
Treatment includes antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medicine, and bed rest.
Your child will need to have ongoing treatment to stop the disease from coming back.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child.
Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose
for that visit.
Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important
if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.