Irfan Rahman Named ATS Fellow
Wednesday, October 31, 2018
Irfan Rahman, Ph.D., professor of environmental medicine, public health sciences, dentistry and medicine has been designated as an American Thoracic Society Fellow for his pulmonary science accomplishments and services to international lung community.
Dr. Rahman's lab is interested in understanding the redox signaling, mechanism of proinflammatory gene expression by studying the chromatin remodeling-epigenetic changes (histone acetylation/deacetylation) on pro-inflammatory genes, involvement of anti-inflammatory and anti-aging proteins sirtuins, and steroid resistance in chronic inflammatory diseases/COPD. Recent research includes in understanding the role of sirtuins in aging and accelerated decline in lung function and regulation of circadian genes. Our long-term goal is to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of COPD, and the potential benefit of therapeutic interventions in this debilitating disease.
Former Tox Student Claire McCarthy, PhD Featured on NPR
Thursday, October 18, 2018
Early one morning in the spring of 2017, former Toxicology graduate student Claire McCarthy (Sime Lab) started her day as many don't: rolling dried rhinoceros dung into cigarettes and packing them into a machine that smoked them.
Although it might seem bizarre, McCarthy's purpose was serious: She wanted to know what happens when people breathe in dung smoke.
Dung smoke is no joke. Animal dung is used by millions globally for heating and cooking.
It's a dangerous practice. Burning biomass fuels (including animal dung as well as wood, charcoal, and plant matter) generates indoor air pollution, which caused 4 million deaths worldwide in 2012 according to the World Health Organization. Like cigarette smoke, biomass smoke has been linked to increased risk of lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), lung cancer and respiratory infection.
Read More: Former Tox Student Claire McCarthy, PhD Featured on NPR
O'Reilly Receives New Grant to Understand How Early Exposure To Oxygen Alters How The Lung Responds To Flu
Wednesday, October 17, 2018
Why does preterm birth increase the severity of respiratory viral infections in children?
Michael O’Reilly, Ph.D., professor of Pediatrics and Environmental Medicine has received a $2 million grant to investigate how early exposure to oxygen changes how the lung responds to influenza A virus later in life. The grant continues a line of research that began 12 years ago when his own son Thomas was born preterm.
A growing body of evidence suggests exposure to environmental pollutants during critical stages of fetal and postnatal lung development can permanently change health of the lung later in life. The transition to air at birth is one of the most profound environmental changes that the developing lung will ever experience. While the newborn lung is prepared to breathe oxygen, the preterm lung transitions too soon. This aberrant exposure to oxygen at birth can increase the severity of viral infections through poorly understood mechanisms.
Using a novel mouse model, Dr. O’Reilly and his colleagues discovered high levels of oxygen at birth increases the severity of influenza A virus infection by depleting epithelial stem cells needed to repair the infected lung. The goal of the new grant is to figure how oxygen depleted these cells with the hope that such knowledge will increase our ability to prevent or treat lung disease in people born preterm.
Additional collaborators on this project include B. Paige Lawrence, Ph.D., Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Ph.D., Andrew McDavid, Ph.D., and Martha Susiarjo, Ph.D.
Roswell Park and URMC to Create $19 Million Research Program Focused on Flavored Tobacco
Friday, September 21, 2018
The expertise of two regional research teams has earned a federal grant of nearly $20 million to create the nation’s first program dedicated to the study of flavored tobacco. One of only nine projects to earn funding through the federal Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) program, the WNY Center for Research on Flavored Tobacco Products, or CRoFT, will unite teams from Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center and the University of Rochester Medical Center in an effort to better document and understand one of the fastest-growing trends in tobacco use.
The five-year, $19.05 million competitive grant, awarded by the National Cancer Institute, will be shared by Roswell Park and URMC. Based at Roswell Park, the program will be led by Richard O’Connor, Ph.D., and Maciej Goniewicz, Ph.D., Pharm.D., both internationally recognized experts on tobacco use and its health consequences. The Roswell Park team will analyze various combustible and electronic tobacco products, their consequences for health and how users interact with these products. Collaborators from URMC, led by Irfan Rahman, Ph.D., and Deborah Ossip, Ph.D., will contribute critical resources in biomarker screening, genetic analysis and toxicology assessment.
“We’re really excited about initiating this work, because no one has ever looked at flavored tobacco in such a comprehensive and systematic way. There are so many different flavorings, delivery systems and product options, and so much we don’t know about them,” says O’Connor, professor of Oncology with Roswell Park’s Health Behavior and Epidemiology & Prevention programs and director of the Buffalo cancer center’s Tobacco Research Laboratory.
Current federal regulations prohibit the sale and manufacture of flavors other than menthol in combustible cigarettes but not in other tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Data published last year from the PATH Study, the largest prospective U.S. study of tobacco use, indicated that use of flavored products was highest among youth and young-adult tobacco users, with 80% of tobacco users ages 12-17 and 73% of tobacco users ages 18-24 reporting that they’d used a flavored tobacco product in the previous 30 days.
“There are a number of flavoring chemicals that are regarded as safe for incorporation into food and drink, but we have such limited data about what happens when these products are inhaled,” adds Rahman, professor of Environmental Medicine, Dentistry, Medicine (Pulmonary) and Public Health Sciences at URMC. “We’re going to study the impact on public health when these chemicals are added to e-cigarettes, vape pens, Juul and other pods, hookahs, waterpipes, cigars and cigarillos (little cigars) to be a resource for both policymakers and the general public.”Read More: Roswell Park and URMC to Create $19 Million Research Program Focused on Flavored Tobacco
Paige Lawrence and Irfan Rahman Recognized at Opening Convocation
Friday, September 7, 2018
At Opening Convocation on September 6, 2018, Paige Lawrence received the award for Outstanding T32 Program Director. This award is presented to the T32 principal investigator with the best impact score for a new grant or competing renewal in the past year.
Irfan Rahman was also recognized at Convocation for receiving a Dean’s Professorship this past year. Dean’s Professorships were established in 1982 and are designated by the Dean to be assigned to individuals of outstanding research excellence.
Congratulations to both!
Paige Lawrence, Ph.D.
Irfan Rahman, Ph.D.
Martha Susiarjo Featured in NIEHS Success Stories
Friday, June 29, 2018
Recently featured as an NIEHS Success Story, NIEHS grantee Martha Susiarjo, Ph.D., studies how exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may negatively affect the health of a pregnant mother and her baby. EDCs are chemicals that can interfere with how hormones in the body communicate. Bisphenol A (BPA), flame retardants, and other contaminants that may act as EDCs are found in everyday consumer products, such as plastic bottles, metal food cans, and household furniture.
As a graduate student at Case Western Reserve University, Susiarjo performed genetics research to determine the effects of BPA on oocyte development in mice. This research was conducted under the mentorship of Patricia Hunt, Ph.D., a geneticist who discovered chromosomal abnormalities in the offspring of pregnant mice inadvertently exposed to BPA from damaged caging materials.
After successful completion of her doctoral research in 2007, Susiarjo went on to receive postdoctoral training under the direction of Marisa Bartolomei, Ph.D., an epigenetics researcher at the University of Pennsylvania. While there, Susiarjo received an NIEHS postdoctoral training grant to study the impact of BPA exposure on the mouse epigenome.
“These experiences helped me get where I am today,” Susiarjo said. “I was very fortunate to have mentors who saw great potential in me and pushed me to do more.”
Susiarjo now leads research in her own laboratory at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. Her lab uses mice as a model organism to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate the effects of EDCs on maternal health and fetal development during pregnancy. Her research shows that epigenetics, or heritable changes that affect gene expression without changing the genetic sequence in DNA, can play a large role in these effects.Read More: Martha Susiarjo Featured in NIEHS Success Stories
Lemonade Stand Supports Efforts to Cure Childhood Cancer
Tuesday, June 5, 2018
The lab of Danielle Benoit, an associate professor of biomedical engineering, will hold its ninth annual fundraiser this weekend in support of Alex’s Lemonade Stand Foundation and its efforts to cure childhood cancer. Donations are accepted online or by dropping by the lab’s lemonade stand, being held from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. Saturday June 9, at the Rochester Public Market, 280 North Union Street, or from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Sunday, June 10, at the Brighton Farmers Market, 1150 Winton Road South.
Read More: Lemonade Stand Supports Efforts to Cure Childhood Cancer
Lawrence Lab article chosen as one of the NIEHS “Papers of the month"
Friday, June 1, 2018
The Lawrence Lab's article, "Developmental Exposure to a Mixture of 23 Chemicals Associated With Unconventional Oil and Gas Operations Alters the Immune System of Mice", has been chose as one of NIEHS "Papers of the month."
The paper deals with prenatal exposure to chemicals used in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction, also known as fracking, affected immune system development in mice, according to a new study by NIEHS grantees. The study provided the first evidence that early-life exposure to a mixture of 23 commonly used UOG chemicals may hinder the ability to ward off diseases later in life.
Congratulations to the entire lab, Dr. Lawrence and co-authors, including Drs. Steve Georas, Jacques Robert and Susan Nagel (Missouri).Read More: Lawrence Lab article chosen as one of the NIEHS “Papers of the month"
Scientific Data Proves Juuling is a Health Risk
Wednesday, May 30, 2018
Vapes may be the lesser of two evils, but that doesn’t mean that they aren’t, well, evil. Conventional cigarettes sent a generation of smokers hacking and coughing right to their deaths. By comparison, vape pens are far less dangerous. But that doesn’t mean e-cigarettes — the Juuls and KandyPens teens seem to love so much — are safe for children (or their parents).
Studies suggest that children who vape are more likely to smoke real cigarettes later on, setting back decades of anti-smoking efforts. The liquid and vapor that vape users inhale (and exhale onto others) contain harmful chemicals such as anti-freeze, a host of carcinogens, and other substances known to cause cell death. Meanwhile, the concentrated nicotine in vaping solutions poses a unique, toxic threat to small children who unintentionally swallow the liquid or spill it on their skin. In a word, e-cigarettes aren’t safe for your kids and aren’t safe around your kids.
Here’s the data behind these conclusions:
Even Without Tobacco, E-Cigs Aren’t Safe
Inhaling flavored e-cigarette liquids may kill white blood cells and damage lung tissue, even if the solution doesn't contain any nicotine, according to a study in Frontiers in Physiology. Although researchers only examined cells in vitro, they found that flavoring chemicals increased the number of biomarkers that indicate inflammation, and killed more cells than unflavored solution. “Nicotine-free e-liquids have generally been considered safe; however, the impact of flavoring chemicals, especially on immune cells, has not been widely researched,” coauthor on the study Irfan Rahman of the University of Rochester Medical Center told Reuters. “Even though flavoring compounds are considered safe for ingestion, it is not safe for inhalation.”Read More: Scientific Data Proves Juuling is a Health Risk
Professor Benoit receives Drug Development Award from UR Ventures
Tuesday, May 8, 2018
Professor Danielle Benoit, along with Profs. Rudi Fasan and Ben Frisch, received a Drug Development Award from UR Ventures for their project entitled, "Synergistic agents to normalize the marrow niche and potentiate AML cytotoxic agents.” The goal of this drug discovery lead study application is to perform pharmacokinetics/biodistribution and preliminary efficacy studies for a new AML drug therapy involving one repurposed FDA approved drug (Maraviroc, to prime the microenvironment for cytotoxic agents, identified as a potential AML-acting drug by Prof. Frisch) and a new selective antileukemic drug entity (micheliolide-64, a cytotoxic agent developed by Prof. Fasan). Data will provide initial assessments of the therapeutic potential of a new, synergistic treatment based on bone marrow-directed delivery of marrow priming agents and AML cell-targeting cytotoxic agents. As these drugs suffer from significant delivery barriers hindering efficacy they are loaded into a targeted drug delivery system developed by Prof. Benoit. Critical towards these studies is the bone marrow microenvironment and AML therapy development expertise of Prof. Frisch.
Deborah Cory-Slechta Receives Lifetime Achievement Award in Graduate Education
Monday, May 7, 2018
As a faculty member at the School of Medicine and Dentistry, Deborah Cory-Slechta holds professorship positions in the departments of Environmental Medicine, Pediatrics, and Public Health Sciences. A former chair of the Department of Environmental Medicine and principal investigator of the department’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Center, Cory-Slechta has been nationally and internationally recognized for her scientific contributions.
Considered one of the medical school’s most distinguished faculty members, Cory-Slechta served in leadership roles for several Ph.D. programs, where she also teaches key graduate courses. As the recipient of a Women’s Health and the Environment over the Entire Lifespan grant, she oversees a career development and mentoring initiative for junior faculty members.
Widely regarded for her research on the consequences of developmental exposures to environmental chemicals on brain development and behavior, she has examined the effects of exposures to metals, pesticides and air pollutants. That work—particularly her groundbreaking research on the biological effects of exposure to lead—has had important regulatory and policy implications.
After earning her undergraduate and master’s degree at Western Michigan University, she received her PhD at the University of Minnesota. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at Rochester, she joined the University in 1982.
Read More: Deborah Cory-Slechta Receives Lifetime Achievement Award in Graduate Education
Fracking the Immune System
Tuesday, May 1, 2018
Amid predictions of a second fracking boom in the U.S., the first evidence that chemicals found in ground water near fracking sites can impair the immune system was published today in Toxicological Sciences. The study, performed in mice, suggests that exposure to fracking chemicals during pregnancy may diminish female offspring's ability to fend off diseases, like multiple sclerosis.
Fracking, also called hydraulic fracturing or unconventional oil and gas extraction, involves pumping millions of gallons of chemical-laden water deep underground to fracture rock and release oil and gas. About 200 chemicals have been measured in waste water and surface or ground water in fracking-dense regions and several studies have reported higher rates of diseases, like acute lymphocytic leukemia and asthma attacks, among residents in these areas.
"Our study reveals that there are links between early life exposure to fracking-associated chemicals and damage to the immune system in mice," said Paige Lawrence, Ph.D., chair of Environmental Medicine at the University of Rochester Medical Center, who led the study. "This discovery opens up new avenues of research to identify, and someday prevent, possible adverse health effects in people living near fracking sites."Read More: Fracking the Immune System
Air pollution might be the new lead
Thursday, April 5, 2018
Sometimes air pollution is easy to see. It billows off the top of smoke stacks, and out the tailpipes of cars zooming down the highway. Misty smog hangs in the air in cities like Delhi, Beijing, and Los Angeles, fracturing sunlight into a muted haze.
Most of the time, though, dirty air just looks like air. About 92 percent of the world’s population, and more than half the people in the United States, live in areas with unhealthy air quality. The World Health Organization calls air pollution the world’s “largest single environmental health risk,” and it leads to the premature deaths of millions annually. It’s a major public health problem for reasons you might expect: breathing in dirty air isn’t good for your lungs, and the the connection between the lungs and the cardiovascular system means it puts pressure on your heart, too.
But it’s increasingly clear that the effects of air pollution aren’t constrained to body parts below the shoulders—they can hurt the brain in a whole host of ways, many of which researchers are still trying to understand. One major area of interest? The way exposure to polluted air can affect the cognitive development of babies and children. Researchers aren’t shocked to find that an environmental toxin could harm young brains, because they’ve seen it happen before.
“To me, air pollution is kind of the next lead, in a way,” saysRead More: Air pollution might be the new lead
NIEHS eFactor Features Susiarjo's Lecture
Tuesday, April 3, 2018
Imprinted genes and how their interactions with environmental chemicals can affect maternal and fetal health was the focus of a talk by Martha Susiarjo, Ph.D., from the University of Rochester. She spoke March 21 as part of the NIEHS Keystone Science Lecture Seminar Series.
Imprinted genes are those in which the copy from one parent is silenced through epigenetic modifications, which are changes to DNA that affect the function of genes but not the underlying DNA sequence.
“Although imprinted genes represent a small portion of the mammalian genome, they play a critical role during early development,” said Susiarjo. “We are working to understand how epigenetic markers mediate these effects and how gene-environment interactions can reprogram development of the fetus.”
Fred Tyson, Ph.D., a program director in the NIEHS Genes Environment and Health Branch, hosted the talk. “It was exciting to learn more about Susiarjo’s innovative work as an early-stage investigator,” said Tyson. “Her research is revealing new information about how epigenetic regulation of genes contributes to early development, and how environmental chemicals may alter this process.”Read More: NIEHS eFactor Features Susiarjo's Lecture
E-cigarettes don’t need nicotine to be toxic
Friday, March 30, 2018
Think electronic cigarettes without nicotine are harmless? Think again. A new study shows that the flavorings in e-cigs can harm human infection-fighting cells.
E-cigarettes work by heating a flavored liquid to make a mist that users inhale, or “vape.” These flavored liquids, called e-liquids, usually contain nicotine. But not always. Manufacturers add nicotine for vapers who want a buzz from their e-cigarettes. It’s the same stimulant that true cigarettes deliver. That nicotine — made from tobacco — qualifies most e-cigs as “tobacco products.”
The nicotine may be useful for adults who are addicted to cigarettes and want to wean themselves off. But nicotine can harm children and teens. That’s why some young people may choose to vape instead of smoke, and use nicotine-free products. But the new data suggest that e-cigs can still be toxic, even without nicotine.
“We know these flavors are really attractive to teens,” says Irfan Rahman. He works at the University of Rochester in New York. He says studies have shown that one reason many teens try e-cigarettes is an interest in fruity and candy-flavored products.
Researchers used this machine to mechanically “vape” e-liquids. The researchers then measured harmful chemicals that had been released into the air. (Photo Courtesy of Irfan Rahman)
As a toxicologist, Rahman studies whether various materials can poison the body’s cells or tissues. His team decided to test whether certain flavored e-liquids are toxic (meaning poisonous). They tested several common e-liquid flavorings. These included cinnamon roll, cotton candy, melon, pineapple, coconut and cherry.
Such flavorings are considered safe in foods. That’s because after a person swallows them, they’re broken down in the gut. But that doesn’t mean these same chemicals are safe to breathe in. They could harm parts of the respiratory tract, such as the lungs.
Rahman’s team didn’t expose people to these flavorings, in case they were harmful. Instead, they tested e-liquid chemicals on human cells in a dish. This helped them judge whether the chemicals might also harm cells inside the body.
The answer: Some of the vaped flavorings did prove toxic to those cells. The researchers published their findings in the January Frontiers in Physiology.Read More: E-cigarettes don’t need nicotine to be toxic
Dr. Rahman Invited To Speak at Tobacco 21 Forum
Thursday, March 22, 2018
Irfan Rahman addresses the crowd at the Tobacco 21 Forum
On March 21st at the Thomas P Ryan R-Center, 530 Webster Avenue in Rochester, NY, Dr. Irfan Rahman participated in the Kick Butts Day Point of Sale & Tobacco 21 Forum. The event was organized to address tobacco’s impact on youth & the community as well as research and evidence-based policy solutions.
Dr. Rahman's talk was on Local Youth Impact & E-cigarette Usage.
The goals and objectives of the event were:
- Develop knowledge that will more fully equip community members and leaders to create healthier and safer approaches to protecting local populations from the dangers of tobacco use
- Improve awareness of the interconnectedness between tobacco-related influences: social, economic, public health, and youth-based impacts
As a result of the forum, participants will be able to:
- Engage community leaders and organizations on present tobacco-related health disparities
- Comprehend Tobacco 21 efforts and emerging trends toward this movement
- Understand e-cigarette research and data to better educate our county parents and adolescents
- Recognize tobacco marketing and retailer density consequences on our youth, communities, and neighborhoods
- Become knowledgeable of effective evidence-based policy solutions on the local level
Rahman To Be Featured Guest on European Science TV Series "Xenius"
Thursday, March 22, 2018
On Monday March 26th, Dr. Irfan Rahman will be the featured guest on the renowned European TV science series ARTE's Xenius (Science Made Easy). This episode of the series features e-cigarette fluids and about the latest research about their possible health risks.
As a result of Dr. Rahman's scientific insights and ongoing studies about chemicals in e-cigarette flavours and possible health issues that are caused by them, the show's director, Nils Otte, reached out to Irfan to be on the show to discuss his research and the effects of e-cigarettes.
International Partners in Seychelles Study Gather in Rochester
Wednesday, March 21, 2018
By Mark Michaud
More than three decades of research in the Seychelles have consistently shown that high levels of fish consumption by pregnant mothers do not produce developmental problems in their children. The international team of researchers behind this study, one of the largest and longest population studies of its kind, is meeting this week in Rochester.
The Seychelles Child Development Study has transformed scientists’ understanding of the relationship between the consumption of fish rich in nutrients necessary for brain development and the possible harmful effects of mercury also found in fish. The study’s findings have global implications – fish represent the main source of protein for much of the world’s population – and challenge the long-promulgated advice of many organizations that expecting mothers moderate fish consumption during pregnancy.
“This study is a truly international and interdisciplinary collaboration that demonstrates how the combination of rigorous science and a commitment to taking the long view can help us answer important questions related to health, diet, and child development,” said Edwin van Wijngaarden, Ph.D., a professor in the University of Rochester Medical Center’s (URMC) Department of Public Health Sciences who leads the Seychelles Child Development Study.
The Seychelles, a cluster of islands in the Indian Ocean, has proven to be the ideal location to examine the potential health impact of persistent low-level mercury exposure. The nation’s 90,000 residents consume a wide variety of ocean fish at a rate 10 times greater than the populations of the U.S. and Europe. The island nation also possesses universal and free health care and education and is largely free of the industrial development that could serve as a source of pollution.Read More: International Partners in Seychelles Study Gather in Rochester
Is Vaping Safer Than Smoking?
Thursday, March 15, 2018
After e-cigarettes first emerged in 2004, they quickly became a popular, "healthier" alternative for those who wanted the feeling of smoking tobacco. This could be one of the reasons for the steady, continued decline of cigarette smoking in the United States. While nearly 42 percent of the population were smokers during the Mad Men era of the mid-60s, the figure dropped to around 17 percent in recent years.
While studies acknowledge vaping has far less of an impact on health compared to smoking, experts also cautioned long-term studies still can't make solid conclusions as the alternative has been in use for only a little more than a decade. Growing evidence from research, however, suggested we are just beginning to see the potential consequences.
In 2015, a letter from the New England Journal of Medicine expressed concern over formaldehyde, a toxic compound found in the vapors produced by e-cigarettes. While researchers are still studying its link to cancer, formaldehyde is known to cause irritation to the skin, eyes, nose, and throat.
Irfan Rahman, professor of Environmental Medicine at the University of Rochester, led the first study to examine the impact of e-cigarettes on oral health.
"We showed that when the vapors from an e-cigarette are burned, it causes cells to release inflammatory proteins, which in turn aggravate stress within cells, resulting in damage that could lead to various oral diseases," he said.
This year, he was one of the authors of a study that examined artificial flavors for inducing tissue damage and having a toxic effect on white blood cells, with the worst impact coming from cinnamon, vanilla, and buttery flavored e-juices. There are around 250 harmful chemicals found in traditional cigarettes while the number is significantly reduced in vaping. But the presence of nicotine still poses a threat (particularly risk of heart disease) in its concentrated, e-liquid form.
Janelle Veazey Receives F31 National Research Service Award From NIH
Sunday, February 18, 2018
Immunology graduate student Janelle Veazey, has received an F31 National Research Service Award from the NIH. This pre-doctoral fellowship will support her research investigating a new role for airway epithelial protein kinase D in anti-viral immunity.
Flavored E-Cigarette Liquid May Harm Lungs Even Without Nicotine, Study Suggests
Monday, February 12, 2018
By Lisa Rapaport (Reuters Health)
E-cigarette liquids sweetened with flavorings like vanilla and cinnamon may harm the lungs even when they don’t contain nicotine, a U.S. study suggests.
Researchers examined what happened to monocytes, a type of white blood cell, upon exposure to flavoring chemicals used in popular e-cigarette liquids. None of the liquids contained nicotine, but the flavoring chemicals still appeared to increase biomarkers for inflammation and tissue damage, and many of them also caused cells to die.
Over time, this type of cell damage can lead to wide range of lung problems including fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and asthma, said senior study author Irfan Rahman, an environmental health researcher at the University of Rochester Medical Center in upstate New York.
“Nicotine-free e-liquids have generally been considered safe; however, the impact of flavoring chemicals, especially on immune cells, has not been widely researched,” Rahman said by email. “This study shows that even though flavoring compounds are considered safe for ingestion, it is not safe for inhalation.”Read More: Flavored E-Cigarette Liquid May Harm Lungs Even Without Nicotine, Study Suggests
E-Cigarette Flavors Are Toxic to White Blood Cells, Warn Scientists
Thursday, February 1, 2018
A new study led by the Rahman lab and first author, Toxicology post-doctoral researcher, Dr. Thivanka Muthumalage, adds to growing evidence on the harmful health effects of e-cigarettes. Currently, the article has been viewed over 16,500 times (in just one day) and several news sources have written articles and reported about it across the globe.
The paper has been so well received that it is currently ranked in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
The study has revealed another potential health risk of e-cigarettes, finding that the chemicals used to flavour e-cigarette liquids are toxic to white blood cells. The study wanted to test the assumption that nicotine-free flavoured e-liquids are safer than smoking tobacco cigarettes, looking at what effect e-cigs might have on the immune system.
To do this the researchers directly exposed a type of white blood cell called monocytes, which help the body fight infection, to e-liquids. They found that e-cigarette flavoring chemicals and liquids can cause significant inflammation to monocytes, with many of the flavouring chemicals also causing significant cell death. Some flavours were found to be more harmful than others, with cinnamon, vanilla, and buttery flavours among the worst.
The researchers also found that mixing e-cigarette flavours has a much worse effect than exposure to just one flavour and caused the most toxicity to white blood cells.
The study's first author, Dr. Thivanka Muthumalage, commented on the findings, saying that although these flavouring compounds may be safe for ingestion, the results show they are not safe for inhalation and add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that e-cigarettes are harmful to health. Previous research has also found that the flavors used in e-cigarettes cause inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in lung cells.
Senior author Dr. Irfan Rahman expressed concern: “Our scientific findings show that e-liquid flavors can, and should, be regulated and that e-juice bottles must have a descriptive listing of all ingredients. We urge regulatory agencies to act to protect public health,” he said, also warning that, “alluring flavour names, such as candy, cake, cinnamon roll and mystery mix, attract young vapers.”
The team are now planning further research and are calling for further long-term human studies to understand better the harmful effects of e-cigarettes. The findings can be found published online in the journal Frontiers in Physiology.
To learn more please read the following articles:
Remembering a Pioneer of Environmental Health Science
Wednesday, January 31, 2018
By Pete Myers, Richard Stahlhut, Joan Cranmer, Steven Gilbert, Shanna Swan
Colleagues honor Bernard "Bernie" Weiss (1925-2018)—a remarkable scientist, thinker, visionary and writer
One rarely is lucky enough to drive the early evolution of a new scientific discipline, but Bernard (Bernie) Weiss was there, always at the forefront as the field of behavioral toxicology took shape.
And along with the many students he inspired, he remained there throughout his career. Blending psychology, toxicology, and technology, Bernie Weiss shaped this discipline using new methods to explore the subtle, and not so subtle, effects of environmental chemicals on behavior and the nervous system.
He was a remarkable scientist, thinker, visionary, and writer. Bernie Weiss passed away on the morning of January 22, 2018.
Bernie was born in Brooklyn, NY, in 1925 and served in the Air Force from 1944-45. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology from New York University in 1949, and a Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology in 1953 from the University of Rochester. From Rochester, he took a job at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, but was recruited back to University of Rochester in 1965 by Dr. Harold Hodge to explore the behavioral consequences of exposure to toxicants, such as inorganic mercury vapor.
Bernie was a pioneer. In the 1960s he was one of the first to use LINC (Laboratory Instrument Computer) and Digital Equipment Computer (DEC). Computer systems would later allow researchers to perform incredibly complex experiments and collect data at a level of detail never before imagined, thereby revealing subtle effects of chemicals on behavior.
Bernie's lab led the way in computer-controlled experiments in behavioral toxicology, as well as to assess the effects of low levels of drugs and metals on the sensory systems of vision, touch and hearing. Many of these testing capabilities were transferred to and shared with other research laboratories.
Bernie also addressed the investigation of rare, idiosyncratic toxicity, such as food additives and multiple chemical sensitivity. By their nature, these investigations require less traditional study designs in which the subjects are not randomly assigned to the exposure group (most people would never respond), but the exposures are randomly applied in a blinded fashion to people believed to have the conditions.
Bernie was a master of technical details, but he also kept his eye on the big picture. Just one example: he pioneered the idea that small decreases in the average IQ of a population could lead to big decreases in intellectual stars, and big increases in people with individual cognitive disabilities.
Population level effects have consequences.
As the science of behavioral toxicology and related research methods evolved, Bernie continued to champion the scientific facts demonstrating that low levels of exposure to chemicals could have profound effects on the developing nervous system. He encouraged others to take on this work, pursuing for him what became a lifelong goal: to make the world a safer, more resilient place for all.
Bernie was a generous and enduring collaborator. One notable example is his long-term collaboration with Victor Laties (Ph.D. Psychology University of Rochester, '54). Together they shepherded the discipline of behavioral toxicology from its origins in behavioral pharmacology to its distinguished and impactful status today.
Bernie was also a great mentor, who created a unique atmosphere of stability with flexibility that gave his students, staff and collaborators support and encouraged creativity necessary for good science and to explore new ways to answer research questions. He always made himself available to students and staff to discuss problems and scientific challenges, and to explore new methods to try to answer questions.
Bernie wasn't satisfied to remain quietly within the cloistered halls of academia. He saw the human implications of his work and while always the scientist, he pushed hard to apply that science to protect human and environmental health. Many of Bernie's students went on to have important and impactful careers in academia, government and industry.
The family encourages gifts of remembrance be donated to the University of Rochester Weiss Endowment Fund, supporting the Weiss Toxicology Scholar Award for pre-doctoral and postdoctoral trainees. The Fund has supported 8 scholars since 2014.
Pete Myers, Environmental Health Sciences; Richard W. Stahlhut, University of Missouri at Columbia; Joan Cranmer, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; Steven G. Gilbert, Institute of Neurotoxicology & Neurological Disorders; Shanna H. Swan, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.Read More: Remembering a Pioneer of Environmental Health Science
URMC Professor Emeritus and Pioneer of Neurotoxicology Dies at 92
Thursday, January 25, 2018
Bernard "Bernie" Weiss, Ph.D.
By Susanne Pallo
Bernard “Bernie” Weiss, ’53 (Ph.D.), professor emeritus of Environmental Medicine and Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, passed away on January 22 at the age of 92 as the result of a fall.
Weiss was a monumental and beloved figure in the scientific community, and helped found a field of research that tracks the impact of toxic chemicals on human behavior. His research sparked national discussions about the dangers of artificial food dyes, pesticides, and chemicals in plastics. He often advocated for better policies to protect the public.
As recently as 2015, Weiss participated in a national debate over the safety of food dyes, which the Food and Drug Administration had declared safe. Citing studies that showed an association between children ingesting food dyes and hyperactivity, Weiss supported a ban. Several large manufacturers, including Kraft, announced they would remove artificial food coloring such as Yellow No. 5 and Yellow No. 6 from its macaroni and cheese, replacing the dyes with natural ingredients such as turmeric and paprika.
”We are all gamblers. We scheme to conquer chance, to beguile it into surrender, to lull it into forgiveness. In the end, it subdues us; but without malice, and at times to our advantage. Like other lives, mine has been hostage to random collisions… Neurotoxicology will continue to be an adventure as long as its practitioners remain adventurers.”
Into the final years of his career, Weiss sat on advisory boards that review data and make recommendations about dioxin (an industrial waste product), metals, dental amalgams, the environmental conditions on NASA spacecraft, and air quality aboard commercial airplanes. Up to about two years ago, he could be found in lab several days a week, happy to offer consultation and support to other researchers. A scientific paper he co-authored is in the process of being published.
Deborah Cory-Slechta, Ph.D., professor and former chair of Environmental Medicine at URMC, trained as a postdoc in his lab. “Many of the issues Bernie began to address thirty or forty years ago are still major issues in the field today," she said. "He moved issues forward with creativity and foresight and his legacies will be with the field for a long time to come.”
Another colleague was fellow environmental health pioneer David Ozonoff, M.D., M.P.H., chair emeritus of environmental health at Boston University School of Public Health and co-editor-in-chief of the online journal, Environmental Health. He admired Weiss for his steadfastness, persistence to shared ideals, willingness to put his expertise at the service of the common good, his good humor, and not least, his major contributions to science.
“His legacy will not only be the scientific advances he made but those that will be made by others inspired and mentored by him,” Ozonoff said.
Weiss’ career began and ended at the University of Rochester. He earned a doctoral degree in Psychology at the University in 1953 and returned 12 years later as a faculty member.
In the intervening years, Weiss, a WWII Air Force veteran, conducted research at the Air Force School of Aviation Medicine in Texas, then Johns Hopkins University. He began developing ways to measure the impact of drugs, nutrients and chemicals on the brain, and built one of the first mini-computers ever used in research.
In 1965, Weiss was lured back to URMC as it launched one of the world’s first programs to grant a doctoral degree in toxicology. His research and mentorship helped build the program, which recently established the Bernard Weiss Endowment Fund in honor of his indelible mark on the program. The fund, which was organized by a group of URMC Toxicology Graduate Program alumni and staff, provides support for future leaders in the fields of neurotoxicology and toxicology.
Weiss received several honors. He was named Scientist of the Year by the Association of Children and Adults with Learning Disabilities in 1986. In 2003 he received a Distinguished Investigator Award from the Neurotoxicology Specialty Section of the Society of Toxicology. During the mid-1970s, Weiss took part in the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Environmental Health Exchange Agreement, where he led several U.S. delegations in discussions of behavioral toxicology with their counterparts across the globe.
When asked for an autobiographical statement for the journal Neurotoxicology forty years ago, Weiss wrote:
”We are all gamblers. We scheme to conquer chance, to beguile it into surrender, to lull it into forgiveness. In the end, it subdues us; but without malice, and at times to our advantage. Like other lives, mine has been hostage to random collisions… Neurotoxicology will continue to be an adventure as long as its practitioners remain adventurers.”
Weiss is survived by his children, Wendy (Les) Calkins and Tom (Debora) Weiss; grandchildren, Zachary (Sara), Nicole, William, Emily (Marcelo); brother, Leonard (Sandra); beloved partner, Marti Willit; nieces and nephews. A memorial service will be held at a later date.
To honor Weiss, consider making a contribution to the Bernard Weiss Endowment Fund.
Read More: URMC Professor Emeritus and Pioneer of Neurotoxicology Dies at 92
Dr. Thivanka Muthumalage To Present Research At SRNT and SOT
Wednesday, January 24, 2018
Dr. Thivanka Muthumalage, a Toxicology Postdoc in the Rahman lab, has been selected for an oral/podium presentation for his abstract, "Cellular Toxicity and Reactive Oxygen Species Prodution by Commonly Used Flavoring Agents in E-Cigarette Liquids", at the 2018 Meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT). The Annual Meeting will be held February 21-24, 2018, at the Hilton Baltimore Hotel in Baltimore, Maryland.
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Melanie Prinz's Poster Selected for Presentation at NCUR 2018
Tuesday, January 23, 2018
Rahman lab undergrad, Melanie Prinz's poster abstract submission, "Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Commonly Used Flavoring Agents in E-Cigarette Liquids " was selected for presentation at NCUR 2018 at the University of Central Oklahoma. Chosen from more than 4,000 submissions, her abstract demonstrates a unique contribution to her field of study, and NCUR was glad to offer her the opportunity to present this work to her peers, faculty, and staff from all over the nation.
It’s impossible to separate a university and its community. They are connected by vision, by need, by goals. Together, they thrive. The National Conference on Undergraduate Research 2018 embraces this vital relationship in the conference theme, Connection to Place, recognizing the increasing need for direct relevance of an educational experience to the communities that await the college graduate in 2018 and beyond.