Rahman Article Chosen as One of URMC's Top 10 News Stories of 2016
Saturday, December 31, 2016
Irfan Rahman's study, published in Oncotarget in November, has been chosen by the URMC as one of the top news stories of 2016.
The study is the first-ever showing that E-cigarettes cause damage to gum tissue. Rahman's research suggests that electronic cigarettes are as equally damaging to gums and teeth as conventional cigarettes.Read More: Rahman Article Chosen as One of URMC's Top 10 News Stories of 2016
First-ever Study Shows E-cigarettes Cause Damage to Gum Tissue
Wednesday, November 16, 2016
A University of Rochester Medical Center study suggests that electronic cigarettes are as equally damaging to gums and teeth as conventional cigarettes.
The study, published in Oncotarget, was led by Irfan Rahman, Ph.D., professor of Environmental Medicine at the UR School of Medicine and Dentistry, and is the first scientific study to address e-cigarettes and their detrimental effect on oral health on cellular and molecular levels. Electronic cigarettes continue to grow in popularity among younger adults and current and former smokers because they are often perceived as a healthier alternative to conventional cigarettes. Previously, scientists thought that the chemicals found in cigarette smoke were the culprits behind adverse health effects, but a growing body of scientific data, including this study, suggests otherwise.
“We showed that when the vapors from an e-cigarette are burned, it causes cells to release inflammatory proteins, which in turn aggravate stress within cells, resulting in damage that could lead to various oral diseases,” explained Rahman, who last year published a study about the damaging effects of e-cigarette vapors and flavorings on lung cells and an earlier study on the pollution effects. “How much and how often someone is smoking e-cigarettes will determine the extent of damage to the gums and oral cavity.”Read More: First-ever Study Shows E-cigarettes Cause Damage to Gum Tissue
Collaboration in Pediatrics and Environmental Medicine Improves Understanding of Developmental Lung Immunology
Saturday, November 12, 2016
Michael A. O'Reilly, Ph.D.
Michael O'Reilly, Ph.D., Professor of Pediatrics, is a developmental lung biologist who is interested in understanding how oxygen therapy given to preterm babies affects lung function later in life. Paige Lawrence, Ph.D., Professor of Environmental Medicine, is an immunologist and toxicologist who studies how environmental factors have positive and negative effects on immune system development and function. Their mutual interest in the developmental origins of lung disease led Drs. O'Reilly and Lawrence to establish a fruitful research partnership.
Initially, these investigators collaborated on a study that used a model system in which mice were exposed to increased levels of oxygen at birth. Once the mice reached adulthood, they were infected with influenza virus. Interestingly, the oxygen-exposed mice developed significant interstitial lung disease. In contrast, injection of the virus into non-lung tissues led to a normal immune response and no interstitial lung disease. They concluded that early life oxygen exposure affects the programming of the lung and its ability to mount a normal immune response to infection.
B. Paige Lawrence, Ph.D
To continue to explore these provocative findings, they recently submitted a grant application to study the expansion of a population of cells in the lung that may be responsible for the disrupted host response to respiratory viral infections. The long-term goal for the project is to identify a target that could be amenable to drug development. This work also involves collaboration with Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Microbiology and Immunology. In addition, Drs. Lawrence and O'Reilly plan to collaborate on studies of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a protein that binds hundreds of environmental factors and has an extremely important role in the immune system. Recently obtained data suggest that it also has an important role in the lung. Importantly, the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the lung has not been extensively investigated.
When discussing their successful collaboration, both noted the importance of overlapping interests, but also differing perspectives. "We have a different toolbox, but it's not so different that we don't understand each other's toolboxes," said Lawrence. O’Reilly added, "She's not asking me to come out of my area of interest and I'm not asking her to come out of hers; so, it's the perfect Venn diagram." This decade-long collaboration has resulted in many publications, funding, and advances in research. O’Reilly and Lawrence are looking forward to continuing their work together with the goal of making additional contributions to our understanding of how fetal and childhood exposures affect lung immune function later in life.
Learn more about the work of the O'Reilly and Lawrence labs.
Yee M, Gelein R, Mariani TJ, Lawrence BP, O'Reilly MA. "The Oxygen Environment at Birth Specifies the Population of Alveolar Epithelial Stem Cells in the Adult Lung." Stem Cells. 2016 May; 34(5):1396-406. Epub 2016 Mar 07.