Antibiotic Prophylaxis In 2011, 100% of Highland Hospital's knee replacement patients had their antibiotics discontinued within 24 hours after the surgery end time. Prophylactic antibiotics should be discontinued within 24 hours after the surgery end time to prevent patients from developing resistance to the antibiotics. According to the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) Surgical Infection Prevention Core Performance Measures, patients undergoing knee replacement (also called knee arthroplasty) should receive a prophylactic antibiotic within one hour prior to the surgical incision being made. Surgical site infections affect approximately 500,000 persons per year according to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report. Numerous factors such as age and general health status of persons undergoing surgery can affect rates of infection at any given hospital. One of the National Patient Safety Goals from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations is prevention of healthcare associated infection. The Medicare Quality Improvement Community (MedQIC) , a national knowledge forum for healthcare and quality improvement professionals, encourages careful selection and use of antibiotics for surgical procedures. The benefits of selective peri-operative antibiotic use have been repeatedly demonstrated since the 1960s ( Archives of Surgery . February 2005: 140(2): 174-182 ).