Publications DiPiazza ARichards KAKnowlden ZANayak JLSant AJ (2016). The Role of CD4 T Cell Memory in Generating Protective Immunity to Novel and Potentially Pandemic Strains of Influenza. Frontiers in immunology. Knowlden ZASant AJ (2016). CD4 T cell epitope specificity determines follicular versus non-follicular helper differentiation in the polyclonal response to influenza infection or vaccination. Scientific reports. Leddon SARichards KATreanor JJSant AJ (2015 Sep). Abundance and specificity of influenza reactive circulating memory follicular helper and non-follicular helper CD4 T cells in healthy adults. Immunology. Richards KANayak JChaves FADiPiazza AKnowlden ZAAlam STreanor JJSant AJ (2015 Jul 1). Seasonal Influenza Can Poise Hosts for CD4 T-Cell Immunity to H7N9 Avian Influenza. The Journal of infectious diseases. Nayak JLRichards KAYang HTreanor JJSant AJ (2015 May 1). Effect of influenza A(H5N1) vaccine prepandemic priming on CD4+ T-cell responses. The Journal of infectious diseases. Kennedy BSWeimer ACBedard BNayak JLSacheli DRicci JMeyer DDHubbard D (2014). Meningitis in a School-Aged Child due to Haemophilus influenzae Type E during the Post-Conjugate Vaccine Era-Monroe County, NY, 2011. Vaccines. Alam SKnowlden ZASangster MYSant AJ (2014 Jan). CD4 T cell help is limiting and selective during the primary B cell response to influenza virus infection. Journal of virology. Weilhammer DRBlanchette CDFischer NOAlam SLoots GGCorzett MThomas CLychak CDunkle ADRuitenberg JJGhanekar SASant AJRasley A (2013 Dec). The use of nanolipoprotein particles to enhance the immunostimulatory properties of innate immune agonists against lethal influenza challenge. Biomaterials. Nayak JLAlam SSant AJ (2013 Aug 1). Cutting edge: Heterosubtypic influenza infection antagonizes elicitation of immunological reactivity to hemagglutinin. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Tung JSant AJ (2013 Jul 15). Orchestration of CD4 T cell epitope preferences after multipeptide immunization. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Nayak JLFitzgerald TFRichards KAYang HTreanor JJSant AJ (2013 Jan 15). CD4+ T-cell expansion predicts neutralizing antibody responses to monovalent, inactivated 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus subtype H1N1 vaccine. The Journal of infectious diseases. Sant AJChaves FALeddon SATung J (2013). The control of the specificity of CD4 T cell responses: thresholds, breakpoints, and ceilings. Frontiers in immunology. Richards KAChaves FAAlam SSant AJ (2012 Dec 17). Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines induce broad immunological reactivity to both internal virion components and influenza surface proteins. Vaccine. Nayak JLSant AJ (2012 Aug). Loss in CD4 T-cell responses to multiple epitopes in influenza due to expression of one additional MHC class II molecule in the host. Immunology. Sant AJMcMichael A (2012 Jul 30). Revealing the role of CD4(+) T cells in viral immunity. The Journal of experimental medicine. Chaves FALee AHNayak JLRichards KASant AJ (2012 May 1). The utility and limitations of current Web-available algorithms to predict peptides recognized by CD4 T cells in response to pathogen infection. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Engels BChervin ASSant AJKranz DMSchreiber H (2012 Mar). Long-term persistence of CD4(+) but rapid disappearance of CD8(+) T cells expressing an MHC class I-restricted TCR of nanomolar affinity. Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Sundararajan AHuan LRichards KAMarcelin GAlam SJoo HYang HWebby RJTopham DJSant AJSangster MY (2012). Host differences in influenza-specific CD4 T cell and B cell responses are modulated by viral strain and route of immunization. PloS one. Leddon SASant AJ (2012). The peptide specificity of the endogenous T follicular helper cell repertoire generated after protein immunization. PloS one. Alam SSant AJ (2011 Dec). Infection with seasonal influenza virus elicits CD4 T cells specific for genetically conserved epitopes that can be rapidly mobilized for protective immunity to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Journal of virology. Richards KAChaves FASant AJ (2011 Jun). The memory phase of the CD4 T-cell response to influenza virus infection maintains its diverse antigen specificity. Immunology. Nayak JLSant AJ (2011 Mar). T cell immunology for the clinician. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. Richards KATopham DChaves FASant AJ (2010 Nov 1). Cutting edge: CD4 T cells generated from encounter with seasonal influenza viruses and vaccines have broad protein specificity and can directly recognize naturally generated epitopes derived from the live pandemic H1N1 virus. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Leddon SASant AJ (2010 Aug). Generation of MHC class II-peptide ligands for CD4 T-cell allorecognition of MHC class II molecules. Current opinion in organ transplantation. Desmet EAHollenbaugh JASime PJWright TWTopham DJSant AJTakimoto TDewhurst SMaggirwar SB (2010 May 10). Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 deficiency delays viral clearance in the lung and is associated with diminished influenza-induced cytopathic effect in infected cells. Virology. Nayak JLRichards KAChaves FASant AJ (2010 Apr). Analyses of the specificity of CD4 T cells during the primary immune response to influenza virus reveals dramatic MHC-linked asymmetries in reactivity to individual viral proteins. Viral immunology. Nayak JLTreanor JJ (2009 Dec). Antiviral treatment and prophylaxis of influenza virus in children. Pediatric annals. Weaver JMSant AJ (2009 Dec). Understanding the focused CD4 T cell response to antigen and pathogenic organisms. Immunologic research. Richards KAChaves FASant AJ (2009 Jul). Infection of HLA-DR1 transgenic mice with a human isolate of influenza a virus (H1N1) primes a diverse CD4 T-cell repertoire that includes CD4 T cells with heterosubtypic cross-reactivity to avian (H5N1) influenza virus. Journal of virology. Weaver JMChaves FASant AJ (2009 May 26). Abortive activation of CD4 T cell responses during competitive priming in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Weaver JMLazarski CARichards KAChaves FAJenks SAMenges PRSant AJ (2008 Sep 1). Immunodominance of CD4 T cells to foreign antigens is peptide intrinsic and independent of molecular context: implications for vaccine design. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Huang SGilfillan SKim SThompson BWang XSant AJFremont DHLantz OHansen TH (2008 May 12). MR1 uses an endocytic pathway to activate mucosal-associated invariant T cells. The Journal of experimental medicine. Bandyopadhyay AArneson LBeeson CSant AJ (2008 Mar). The relative energetic contributions of dominant P1 pocket versus hydrogen bonding interactions to peptide:class II stability: implications for the mechanism of DM function. Molecular immunology. Larkin JRankin ALPicca CCRiley MPJenks SASant AJCaton AJ (2008 Feb 15). CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell repertoire formation shaped by differential presentation of peptides from a self-antigen. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Menges PRJenks SABikoff EKFriedmann DRKnowlden ZASant AJ (2008 Feb 1). An MHC class II restriction bias in CD4 T cell responses toward I-A is altered to I-E in DM-deficient mice. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Gardiner ARichards KASant AJArneson LS (2007 Sep). Conformation of MHC class II I-A(g7) is sensitive to the P9 anchor amino acid in bound peptide. International immunology. Richards KAChaves FAKrafcik FRTopham DJLazarski CASant AJ (2007 Jul). Direct ex vivo analyses of HLA-DR1 transgenic mice reveal an exceptionally broad pattern of immunodominance in the primary HLA-DR1-restricted CD4 T-cell response to influenza virus hemagglutinin. Journal of virology. Sant AJChaves FAKrafcik FRLazarski CAMenges PRichards KWeaver JM (2007 Jun). Immunodominance in CD4 T-cell responses: implications for immune responses to influenza virus and for vaccine design. Expert review of vaccines. Chaves FASant AJ (2007 May). Measurement of peptide dissociation from MHC class II molecules. Current protocols in immunology / edited by John E. Coligan ... [et al.]. Chaves FARichards KATorelli AWedekind JSant AJ (2006 May 23). Peptide-binding motifs for the I-Ad MHC class II molecule: alternate pH-dependent binding behavior. Biochemistry. Lazarski CAChaves FASant AJ (2006 May 15). The impact of DM on MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation can be altered by manipulation of MHC-peptide kinetic stability. The Journal of experimental medicine. Sant AJChaves FAJenks SARichards KAMenges PWeaver JMLazarski CA (2005 Oct). The relationship between immunodominance, DM editing, and the kinetic stability of MHC class II:peptide complexes. Immunological reviews. McFarland BJKatz JFSant AJBeeson C (2005 Jul 1). Energetics and cooperativity of the hydrogen bonding and anchor interactions that bind peptides to MHC class II protein. Journal of molecular biology. Lazarski CAChaves FAJenks SAWu SRichards KAWeaver JMSant AJ (2005 Jul). The kinetic stability of MHC class II:peptide complexes is a key parameter that dictates immunodominance. Immunity. Chaves FAHou PWu SSant AJ (2005 May). Replacement of the membrane proximal region of I-A(d) MHC class II molecule with I-E-derived sequences promotes production of an active and stable soluble heterodimer without altering peptide-binding specificity. Journal of immunological methods. Varughese RNayak JLLoMonaco MO'Reilly MARyan RMD'Angio CT (2003 Nov). Effects of hyperoxia on tumor necrosis factor alpha and Grobeta expression in newborn rabbit lungs. Lung. Arneson LSKatz JFLiu MSant AJ (2001 Dec 15). Hydrogen bond integrity between MHC class II molecules and bound peptide determines the intracellular fate of MHC class II molecules. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). McFarland BJKatz JFBeeson CSant AJ (2001 Jul 31). Energetic asymmetry among hydrogen bonds in MHC class II*peptide complexes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nanda NKSant AJ (2000 Sep 18). DM determines the cryptic and immunodominant fate of T cell epitopes. The Journal of experimental medicine. Arneson LSPeterson MSant AJ (2000 Aug 15). The MHC class II molecule I-Ag7 exists in alternate conformations that are peptide dependent. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). McFarland BJSant AJLybrand TPBeeson C (1999 Dec 14). Ovalbumin(323-339) peptide binds to the major histocompatibility complex class II I-A(d) protein using two functionally distinct registers. Biochemistry. Sant AJBeeson CMcFarland BCao JCeman SBryant PWWu S (1999 Dec). Individual hydrogen bonds play a critical role in MHC class II: peptide interactions: implications for the dynamic aspects of class II trafficking and DM-mediated peptide exchange. Immunological reviews. McFarland BJBeeson CSant AJ (1999 Oct 1). Cutting edge: a single, essential hydrogen bond controls the stability of peptide-MHC class II complexes. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Bryant PWRoos PPloegh HLSant AJ (1999 Sep). Deviant trafficking of I-Ad mutant molecules is reflected in their peptide binding properties. European journal of immunology. Siemasko KEisfelder BJStebbins CKabak SSant AJSong WClark MR (1999 Jun 1). Ig alpha and Ig beta are required for efficient trafficking to late endosomes and to enhance antigen presentation. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Ceman SWu SJardetzky TSSant AJ (1998 Dec 7). Alteration of a single hydrogen bond between class II molecules and peptide results in rapid degradation of class II molecules after invariant chain removal. The Journal of experimental medicine. Peterson MSant AJ (1998 Sep 15). The inability of the nonobese diabetic class II molecule to form stable peptide complexes does not reflect a failure to interact productively with DM. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Tan LJCeman SChervonsky ARodriguez-Paris JSteck TLSant AJ (1997 Jun). Late events in the intracellular sorting of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules are regulated by the 80-82 segment of the class II beta chain. European journal of immunology. Stebbins CCPeterson MESuh WMSant AJ (1996 Dec 1). DM-mediated release of a naturally occurring invariant chain degradation intermediate from MHC class II molecules. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Katz JFStebbins CAppella ESant AJ (1996 Nov 1). Invariant chain and DM edit self-peptide presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. The Journal of experimental medicine. Ceman SSant AJ (1995 Dec). The function of invariant chain in class II-restricted antigen presentation. Seminars in immunology. Zuckerman LASant AJMiller J (1995 May 1). Identification of a unique costimulatory activity for murine T helper 1 T cell clones. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Chervonsky ASant AJ (1995 Apr). In the absence of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, invariant chain is translocated to late endocytic compartments by autophagy. European journal of immunology. Stebbins CCLoss GEElias CGChervonsky ASant AJ (1995 Jan 1). The requirement for DM in class II-restricted antigen presentation and SDS-stable dimer formation is allele and species dependent. The Journal of experimental medicine. Chervonsky AVGordon LSant AJ (1994 Jul). A segment of the MHC class II beta chain plays a critical role in targeting class II molecules to the endocytic pathway. International immunology. Katz JFSant AJ (1994 Feb 15). T cell receptor recognition of MHC class II alloantigens is highly cell type dependent. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sant AJMiller J (1994 Feb). MHC class II antigen processing: biology of invariant chain. Current opinion in immunology. Sant AJ (1994). Endogenous antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules. Immunologic research. Loss GEElias CGFields PERibaudo RKMcKisic MSant AJ (1993 Jul 1). Major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted presentation of an internally synthesized antigen displays cell-type variability and segregates from the exogenous class II and endogenous class I presentation pathways. The Journal of experimental medicine. Sant AJ (1993 Jun 15). Isotypic residues in the membrane proximal domain of MHC class II beta-chains control activation of CD4+ T cells. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Loss GESant AJ (1993 Apr 15). Invariant chain retains MHC class II molecules in the endocytic pathway. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). McKisic MDSant AJFitch FW (1991 Nov 1). Some cloned murine CD4+ T cells recognize H-2Ld class I MHC determinants directly. Other cloned CD4+ T cells recognize H-2Ld class I MHC determinants in the context of class II MHC molecules. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sant AJHendrix LRColigan JEMaloy WLGermain RN (1991 Oct 1). Defective intracellular transport as a common mechanism limiting expression of inappropriately paired class II major histocompatibility complex alpha/beta chains. The Journal of experimental medicine. Lechler RISant AJBraunstein NSSekaly RLong EGermain RN (1990 Jan 1). Cell surface expression of hybrid murine/human MHC class II beta alpha dimers. Key influence of residues in the amino-terminal portion of the beta 1 domain. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sant AJGermain RN (1989 Jun 2). Intracellular competition for component chains determines class II MHC cell surface phenotype. Cell. Sant AJZacheis MRumbarger TGiacoletto KSSchwartz BD (1988 Jan 1). Human Ia alpha- and beta-chains are sulfated. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Germain RNSant AJBraunstein NSRonchese F (1988). The molecular basis of antigen presentation. Princess Takamatsu symposia. Sant AJBraunstein NSGermain RN (1987 Nov). Predominant role of amino-terminal sequences in dictating efficiency of class II major histocompatibility complex alpha beta dimer expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Giacoletto KSSant AJBono CGorka JO'Sullivan DMQuaranta VSchwartz BD (1986 Nov 1). The human invariant chain is the core protein of the human class II-associated proteoglycan. The Journal of experimental medicine. Sant AJCullen SEGiacoletto KSSchwartz BD (1985 Dec 1). Invariant chain is the core protein of the Ia-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The Journal of experimental medicine. Sant AJCullen SESchwartz BD (1985 Jul). Biosynthetic relationships of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with Ia and invariant chain glycoproteins. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sant AJSchwartz BDCullen SE (1985 Jul). Cellular distribution of the Ia-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sant AJCullen SESchwartz BD (1984 Mar). Identification of a sulfate-bearing molecule associated with HLA class II antigens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sant AJSchwartz BDCullen SE (1983 Dec 1). Identification of a new component in the murine Ia molecular complex. The Journal of experimental medicine. Fluck RAJaffe MJ (1975 Nov 20). Cholinesterases from plant tissues. VI. Preliminary characterization of enzymes from Solanum melongena L. and Zea mays L. Biochimica et biophysica acta.