Cells undergoing apoptosis can release soluble cues (find-me signals) that promote the recruitment of phagocytes in the initial stages of apoptotic cell clearance. Triphosphate nucleotides (ATP and UTP), acting via P2Y receptors on phagocytes, were recently identified as such a find-me cue.
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Mammalian ELMO proteins (ELMO1-3, Engulfment and Motility) are a family of evolutionarily conserved cytoplasmic adaptor proteins that function in concert with Dock proteins to promote the activation of the small GTPase Rac, a critical regulator of actin polymerization, cell shape and motility.
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