Berkeley Fahrenthold successfully defends her PhD thesis
Monday, March 20, 2017
Berkeley Fahrenthold, a graduate student in Dr. Rick Libby's lab, successfully defended her PhD thesis titled,"Assessment of the involvement of intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways in retinal ganglion cell death after excitotoxic injury".
Congratulations Dr. Fahrenthold!!!
Monday, March 20, 2017
Professor Edward Brown has received NIH funding for his research project titled, "Using Second Harmonic Generation to Predict Metastatic Outcome in Colon Adenocarcinoma."
"In summary, we previously discovered that an optical scattering phenomenon from primary tumor samples provides an independent prognostic indicator of time to metastasis in colon cancer patients," Professor Brown says. "With this grant we will explore if and how this can be used to improve prediction of outcomes for individual patients, leading to improved therapy decisions."
When treating a colon adenocarcinoma (CA) patient, after surgical resection of the tumor the clinician must formulate a plan for adjuvant systemic therapy. This decision is based upon an assessment of the risk of systemic disease recurrence, and is currently informed by pathological factors such as stage, histological grade, and lymph node status. Improvement of the accuracy of risk assessment for individual patients is an area of recognized need. Much of the current information used to assess risk focuses on the cells within tumors, including their morphological properties. Less attention is paid to the extracellular matrix through which metastasizing cells must travel. Second harmonic generation (SHG) is an optical scattering phenomenon whose directionality (as quantified by the “F/B” ratio) is affected by the diameter, spacing, and disorder of fibrils within collagen fibers. Our preliminary data suggests that F/B analysis of tumor samples provides prognostic information about future metastasis that is “matrix-focused” and hence complementary to current “cell-focused” methods. Consequently we hypothesize that F/B is a clinically useful predictor of metastatic outcome in colon adenocarcinoma. In a preliminary study in 44 Stage I colon adenocarcinoma samples we found that F/B of the primary tumor is a significant prognostic indicator of progression free survival time. Significantly, the quartile of patients with the lowest F/B ratio had a 15 year progression free survival percentage of below 50%. In other words, in this study F/B could identify a subset of Stage I patients who had survival statistics similar to Stage III patients. Stage I patients are rarely prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy while Stage III patients are almost always prescribed it. This suggests that F/B can identify patients who would have benefitted from adjuvant chemotherapy and who were left untreated based upon current prognostic indicators. The prognostic trend was also evident in a cohort of 72 Stage II colon adenocarcinoma samples, although it was not significant. This project will move this idea closer to the clinic by first (Aim 1) using archived samples and follow up data in separate training and validation sets to develop predictive algorithms that include F/B, in addition to clinical and genomic information. Second it will (Aim 2) quantify the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on the predictive ability of the algorithms, as well as quantify their ability to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy. We predict that F/B analysis will be an effective tool that can reach the clinic rapidly after this study to improve metastatic risk assessment. Improving the accuracy of risk estimation for an individual patient will allow clinicians to treat those patients who are destined for metastases, improving outcomes, while avoiding treatment for those patients who are not, reducing overtreatment.
"""Read More: Professor Ed Brown receives NIH grant for research project, "Using Second Harmonic Generation to Predict Metastatic Outcome in Colon Adenocarcinoma"
Monday, March 6, 2017
Caring for a loved one with dementia can be very
stressful, but two URMC research studies are
exploring ways to help caregivers manage stress
and improve their own health.
Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia can not only be very stressful, but can negatively affect the well-being of the caregiver. A pair of studies at the University of Rochester Medical Center is exploring ways to help caregivers manage stress and improve their own health so they can more effectively provide care for their loved one.
Kathi Heffner, Ph.D., associate professor in the School of Nursing and Department of Psychiatry, and Jan Moynihan, Ph.D., the George L. Engel Professor in Psychosocial Medicine in the Departments of Psychiatry and Microbiology and Immunology, were awarded more than $5.66 million in NIH funding for two five-year randomized clinical intervention trials focusing on reducing the effects of caregiving on immune health.
Heffner is principal investigator on a cognitive training intervention trial looking at different types of brain training activities and whether they have an effect on the aging of the caregiver’s immune system. Moynihan is leading a study on mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), to see if mindfulness can lead to better immune response to the influenza vaccine.Read More: Clinical Trials Aim to Reduce Stress Burden for Dementia Caregivers
SFN Rochester Chapter News
Thursday, March 2, 2017
The grant application to support the Rochester Society for Neuroscience chapter was recently funded due to efforts by Past President, Doug Portman. Thanks to Doug’s efforts and excellent leadership over the last two years, we can continue our efforts to increase neuroscience awareness and education in our community.
The current Chapter President, Liz Romanski, would like to congratulate the organizers and volunteers for hosting a very successful, first ever, Rochester Brain Bee on February 11, 2017 (picture attached). Ten students from high schools in the Rochester area competed in the Brain Bee, answering questions spanning a large body of neuroscience facts covering brain development, cognition, disease processes, neuroimaging, etc. The three finalists in the Brain Bee were:
- Neli Kotlyar, Pittsford Mendon High School (grade 10)
- Maha Khokhar, Pittsford Sutherland High School (grade 12)
- Kathryn Gentile, Pittsford Mendon High School (grade 11)
Heather Natola and Nicole Peltier were the organizers of the Brain Bee, and were assisted by volunteers from the Brain Awareness committee including Neuroscience graduate students Jessie Hogestyn and Josh Hinkle, and BCS grad students Alyssa Kersey, Carol Jew, and Matt Overlan. The winner of the Brain Bee will fly to Baltimore, MD in March for the National Brain Bee. Funding was made possible by the Society for Neuroscience Chapter, the Neuroscience Graduate Program, and the Department of Neuroscience with prizes from local businesses and donations from Drs. Huxlin and Nehrke. Great job all!
Professor Edward Brown and Professor Catherine K. Kuo receive grant from Department of Defense office of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs
Thursday, February 23, 2017
The Department of Defense office of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs has awarded Professor Edward Brown and Professor Catherine K. Kuo a grant for their research project titled, "Understanding the Role of Matrix Microstructure in Metastasis.” The goal of this project is to evaluate molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of an optical scattering phenomenon to predict metastatic outcome in patient samples.
Tuesday, February 21, 2017
Nina Schor, M.D., Ph.D., William H. Eilinger Chair of Pediatrics and the pediatrician-in-chief at UR Medicine’s Golisano Children’s Hospital, has been named the recipient of the Child Neurology Society’s 2017 Hower Award, the organization’s highest honor.
The award is given annually to a child neurologist for being an outstanding teacher, scholar, and for making high levels of contributions to the field and to the Child Neurology Society. Schor, who has spent much of her career researching neuroblastoma, one of the most common childhood cancers, will be recognized at the society’s annual meeting in October, in Kansas City, Mo. She will also have the honor of giving the annual Hower lecture.
“I am so honored and excited to accept this award and present the associated lecture to an audience comprised of my colleagues, friends, mentors, and trainees,” said Schor.
The Child Neurology Society is the preeminent non-profit professional association of pediatric neurologists in the United States, Canada, and worldwide. Schor, the University of Rochester Medical Center’s seventh Chair of the Department of Pediatrics, joined the university in 2006.Read More: Schor to Receive Child Neurology Society's Highest Honor
Project Explores Machine Learning to Help Predict Alzheimer’s Disease
Friday, February 17, 2017
Feng Vankee Lin, assistant professor of Nursing, and Rajeev Raizada, assistant professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, have been awarded a Collaborative Pilot Award in Health Analytics from the Goergen Institute for Data Science.
The one-year project will use big data in an effort to develop an algorithm for predicting Alzheimer’s disease. The project will analyze large brain-imaging datasets and use multiple machine-learning approaches to uncover diagnostic patterns and create a more reliable predictive model for detecting Alzheimer’s disease.
“It will help initiate a new research area focusing on neuroimaging methodology development in relation to Alzheimer’s disease,” said Lin.
The award includes a $35,000 grant for the project, which runs from Feb. 1, 2017 to Jan. 31, 2018.
Located in Wegmans Hall, the Goergen Institute for Data Science is a hub for interdisciplinary data science research. Its work in health analytics – using data to predict individual health outcomes – includes advances in using data to help analyze the brain more effectively and sharing the data with other researchers to discover more ways to improve outcomes for patients.
Shawn Newlands Appointed Associate CMO for Ambulatory Care
Thursday, February 9, 2017
In a move that reflects the importance of our expanding outpatient network, Shawn Newlands, M.D., Ph.D., M.B.A, has been appointed to the newly created role of Associate Chief Medical Officer for URMC’s ambulatory care enterprise.
“In many ways, this role formalizes and expands the successful work Shawn already does as chair of URMFG’s Clinical Operations Committee, where he has helped build a solid framework for faculty input and oversight of guidelines, policies and other decisions that impact the delivery of patient care in our ambulatory settings,” said Michael F. Rotondo, M.D., F.A.C.S., CEO of URMFG. “As a proven leader who builds consensus and finds the middle ground amid disparate views, he will be a focused and effective guide for our ambulatory enterprise.”
Monday, January 30, 2017
Major Step toward Longer-Lasting HIV Treatment
A drug developed at the University of Rochester Medical Center extends the effectiveness of multiple HIV therapies by unleashing a cell’s own protective machinery on the virus. The finding, published today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, is an important step toward the creation of long-acting HIV drugs that could be administered once or twice per year, in contrast to current HIV treatments that must be taken daily.
The drug, called URMC-099, was developed in the laboratory of UR scientist Harris A. (“Handy”) Gelbard, M.D., Ph.D. When combined with “nanoformulated” versions of two commonly used anti-HIV drugs (also called antiretroviral drugs), URMC-099 lifts the brakes on a process called autophagy.
Normally, autophagy allows cells to get rid of intracellular “trash,” including invading viruses. In HIV infection, the virus prevents cells from turning on autophagy; one of the many tricks it uses to survive. When the brake on autophagy is lifted, cells are able to digest any virus that remains after treatment with antiretroviral therapy, leaving cells free of virus for extended periods of time.
Harris A. (“Handy”) Gelbard, M.D., Ph.D.
“This study shows that URMC-099 has the potential to reduce the frequency of HIV therapy, which would eliminate the burden of daily treatment, greatly increase compliance and help people better manage the disease,” said Gelbard, professor and director of UR’s Center for Neural Development and Disease, who has studied HIV/AIDS for the past 25 years. The finding builds on previous research that Gelbard conducted with Howard E. Gendelman, M.D., professor and chair of the Department of Pharmacology/Experimental Neuroscience at the University of Nebraska Medical Center.Read More: URMC Drug Extends Effectiveness of HIV Therapy
Liz Romanski to serve as President of Rochester Chapter of Society for Neuroscience
Wednesday, January 25, 2017
Liz Romanski, Associate Professor of Neuroscience at the University of Rochester, will serve as President of the Rochester Chapter of the Society for Neuroscience for the 2017-2108 term.
The Chapter is involved in a number of activities designed to strengthen Neuroscience research, education, and outreach in the Rochester area. In addition to Dr. Romanski, the Chapter's current leadership council includes Secretary/Treasurer Chris Holt, Faculty Councilor Amy Kiernan, Past Presidents Krystel Huxlin and Doug Portman, Postdoctoral Councilor Sarah Heilbronner, Graduate Student Councilor Heather Natola, and Administrative Coordinator Ania Dworzanski.
Tuesday, January 24, 2017
A study led by Jessica Cantlon, associate professor of brain and cognitive sciences, suggests that primates have the ability to distinguish large and small quantities of objects, irrespective of the surface area they appear to occupy.
Adults and children in the US, adults from a 'low numeracy' tribe in Bolivia and rhesus monkeys ALL possessed the ability to distinguish between large and small quantities of objects, regardless of the surface area they occupy. This ability is likely a shared evolutionary trait, according to a study. The nonverbal visual tests could be used in assessing early math education in young children.Read More: What humans, primates both know when it comes to numbers
Julianne Feola successfully defends thesis
Wednesday, January 18, 2017
Congratulations to Julianne Feola on completing her PhD degree on Monday, January 17, 2017. Julie was a student in Dr. Gail Johnson lab. She wrote a PhD thesis on The Role of Astrocytic Transglutaminase 2 in mediating Cellular Viability Processes.
Best luck, Julie!
Thursday, January 5, 2017
David Williams, Ph.D.
Researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center have developed a new imaging technique that could revolutionize how eye health and disease are assessed. The group is first to be able to make out individual cells at the back of the eye that are implicated in vision loss in diseases like glaucoma. They hope their new technique could prevent vision loss via earlier diagnosis and treatment for these diseases.
In a study highlighted in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Ethan A. Rossi, Ph.D., assistant professor of Ophthalmology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, describes a new method to non-invasively image the human retina, a layer of cells at the back of the eye that are essential for vision. The group, led by David Williams, Ph.D., Dean for Research in Arts, Sciences, and Engineering and the William G. Allyn Chair for Medical Optics at the University of Rochester, was able to distinguish individual retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which bear most of the responsibility of relaying visual information to the brain. Read More: A Closer Look at the Eye: Researchers Develop New Retinal Imaging Technique
Thursday, January 5, 2017
A new study sheds light on changes in the brain that may explain why young infants who are placed in an orphanage or foster care often struggle with social relationships later in life.
The findings, which were published in the journal Developmental Psychobiology, come from a team of researchers led by Julie Fudge, M.D., with the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) Department of Neuroscience. The scientists revisited data from a study involving monkeys that took place more than a decade ago at the University of Pittsburgh and was designed to observe the behaviors of newborns that were separated from their biological mothers and raised by another group of females. The original study noted that these monkeys differed in their social interactions – such as grooming, huddling together, and normal aggression – compared to those that were raised by their mothers.
Like humans, monkey’s brains are not fully developed at birth and the animals are dependent upon the nurturing of caregivers for many months early in life. Fudge and her colleagues wanted to see if there could find an association between the absence of a primary caregiver and biological changes in the brain that could explain the lasting social impairment observed in the monkeys.
Read More: Mother’s Touch May Extend to Brain Development