Programs The Center for Biodefense Immune Modeling (CBIM) is supported by a contract with NIH/NIAID (NO1 AI 50020) with the objective of developing comprehensive, computational models of the human immune response to unmodified and genetically engineered influenza A. Dr. Hulin Wu, the biostatistician for NYICE, is the principal investigator. There is clear synergy between the goals of this center, which are to make predictions about the human immune response, and the goals of NYICE, which include the detailed measurement of the human immune response to influenza. The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) is a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control (U01 IP000017) that builds on the extensive experience at the University of Rochester with infectious disease surveillance, particularly in children. The overall goal of this multicenter project is to monitor the impact of introduction of new vaccines by assessing vaccine utilization and disease burden before and after vaccines are recommended by ACIP and other organizations. A major focus of this activity has been on assessing the burden of influenza, as the recommendations for influenza vaccination have been gradually expanded during periods of significant vaccine shortages. The surveillance activities proposed by NYICE are similar in scope to the activities carried out by NVSN, and the expertise developed by NVSN will clearly be helpful in the clinical research proposed by NYICE. The UR NVSN is one of only four such sites, nationally. The Human Immunology Center (HIC) is within the David H. Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology is supported by a large NIH grant, and exists to acquire, refine and develop expertise in cutting-edge techniques and to support applications in Human Immunology research. The HIC is designed with capabilities to enhance multi-disciplinary research initiatives catalyzing key clinical and basic immunology research in vaccines, HIV/AIDS, autoimmunity, allergy/asthma, transplantation as well as cancer immunology. The overall Center Director is Dr. Tim Mosmann, and the HIC Laboratory Director is Dr. Sally Quataert. The Center provides training in immunological strategies and protocols through a training program, and the goals of the Human Immunology Center are accomplished through the Human Immunology Core laboratory and also via Pilot Projects for innovative immunological research and technologies. Department of Microbiology and Immunology David H. Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology Respiratory Pathogens Research Center (RPRC) The role of the RPRC is to provide the NIAID Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) with the capability of conducting translational and clinical research focused on the development and optimization of control measures for viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. Research conducted under the RPRC shall focus primarily on the development of information, tools, and strategies to decrease the significant global health burden of diseases, such as bacterial pneumonia, influenza, bronchiolitis, and RSV. This also includes studies on viral-bacterial co-infections. Activities include the design, conduct, and analysis of translational, clinical, and innovation research projects. Studies within this Center will be iterative in that results from translational studies will help better inform the design and/or conduct of clinical studies and vice versa. Respiratory pathogens of primary focus include influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human coronaviruses, human metapneumoviruses, parainfluenza viruses, Group A Streptococcus, Pneumococcus, Bordetella pertussis, as well as emerging and re-emerging respiratory pathogens. Facility for the Evaluation of Vaccines at the University or Rochester (FEVUR) is supported by a contract with the intramural Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, and is primarily designed to conduct clinical evaluation of candidate pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines. These vaccines are constructed using the same master donor virus (MDV) that is used to construct seasonal live influenza vaccines, but possess novel hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) envelope glycoproteins such as H2N3, H5N1, H7N7 or H7N9. Because of the theoretical risk that such live vaccines could be transmitted from person to person, clinical studies of these vaccines are conducted in a dedicated isolation facility where study subjects can be housed during the period that they are shedding the vaccine virus. Some studies have also included administration of related inactivated vaccines, and are accompanied by intensive studies of the cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune response.