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Tim R. Mosmann, Ph.D.

Contact Information

Phone Numbers

Fax: (585) 273-2452

Office: (585) 273-1400

Research Labs

Biography

Dr. Tim R. Mosmann is Director of the Human Immunology Center (HIC), and also serves as the Director and Michael and Angela Pichichero Director's Endowed Chair of the David H. Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology. Dr. Mosmann received B.S. degrees in both Chemistry and Physiology, and in Microbiology, from the University of Natal and Rhodes University in South Africa. He subsequently emigrated to Canada and obtained his Ph.D. in Microbiology at the University of British Columbia. Research fellowships at the University of Toronto and University of Glasgow were followed by his appointment as an assistant professor at the University of Alberta. He then spent 8 years in industry, as a research scientist at DNAX Research Institute in Palo Alto, California - prior to rejoining the University of Alberta as Chairman of the Department of Immunology. In 1998, he was recruited to the University of Rochester. Dr. Mosmann has made many important contributions to the field of Immunology, and is perhaps best known for his discovery, with his colleague Dr. Robert Coffman, of the TH1 and TH2 subsets of T lymphocytes, which determine whether the host response to infection will be characterized by a predominantly humoral immune response (TH2) or a predominantly cellular immune response (TH1). This discovery was a crucial event in our understanding of how the host immune response is regulated, and has fundamental implications for vaccine design and disease pathogenesis. Dr. Mosmann is recognized by the Institute for Scientific Information as a highly cited scientist, and has won many honours and awards for his unique contributions to understanding of the immune system. Note that "highly cited" scientists comprise less than 0.5% of all publishing researchers in science.

Professional Background

Dr. Tim R. Mosmann is Director of the Human Immunology Center (HIC), and also serves as the Director and Michael and Angela Pichichero Director's Endowed Chair of the David H. Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology. Dr. Mosmann received B.S. degrees in both Chemistry and Physiology, and in Microbiology, from the University of Natal and Rhodes University in South Africa. He subsequently emigrated to Canada and obtained his Ph.D. in Microbiology at the University of British Columbia. Research fellowships at the University of Toronto and University of Glasgow were followed by his appointment as an assistant professor at the University of Alberta. He then spent 8 years in industry, as a research scientist at DNAX Research Institute in Palo Alto, California - prior to rejoining the University of Alberta as Chairman of the Department of Immunology. In 1998, he was recruited to the University of Rochester. Dr. Mosmann has made many important contributions to the field of Immunology, and is perhaps best known for his discovery, with his colleague Dr. Robert Coffman, of the TH1 and TH2 subsets of T lymphocytes, which determine whether the host response to infection will be characterized by a predominantly humoral immune response (TH2) or a predominantly cellular immune response (TH1). This discovery was a crucial event in our understanding of how the host immune response is regulated, and has fundamental implications for vaccine design and disease pathogenesis. Dr. Mosmann is recognized by the Institute for Scientific Information as a highly cited scientist, and has won many honours and awards for his unique contributions to understanding of the immune system. Note that "highly cited" scientists comprise less than 0.5% of all publishing researchers in science.

Research

The Th1 and Th2 subsets of CD4+ T cells induce different types of effector functions that are useful in combating different pathogens. Th1 cells producing Interferon gamma induce cytotoxic, inflammatory responses that are most effective against intracellular parasites, whereas Th2 cells producing IL4 and IL5 induce successful responses against helminth parasites. Although naïve, uncommitted CD4 T cells can differentiate into Th1 or Th2 phenotypes within a few days of initial stimulation, they can also remain uncommitted. These primed, precursor cells (Thpp) produce IL-2 and proliferate rapidly, allowing expansion of antigen-specific cells during an immune response before commitment to a particular effector phenotype. Cells producing only IL-2 also persist for several weeks after immunization, suggesting that these cells may also provide an expanded pool of uncommitted T cells for subsequent immune responses. In common with Treg cells, Thpp express CD73, which can help to generate adenosine that contributes to immune suppression. In vivo T cell functions are difficult to evaluate, because cytokine secretion phenotypes in addition to Th1, Th2 and Th0 may occur in vivo; and differentiation and selective growth of T cell subsets in vitro can rapidly obscure patterns that occur in vivo. We are using multicolor flow cytometry and Spot assays to detect the simultaneous expression of two or more cytokines by individual human or mouse T cells, to resolve the contributions of partial differentiation, stochastic variation and environmental effects to the spectrum of cytokines produced by individual cells. Short-term cloning experiments are being used to examine the relationship between T cell phenotypes in vivo, versus in long-term tissue culture. These methods are being applied to define the precise T cell phenotypes induced by vaccination and infection by different influenza strains in infants, adults and the elderly. A Genechip analysis of T cell gene expression revealed that Amphiregulin, an EGF family member, is selectively expressed in activated mouse Th2 cells, and contributes to Th2-mediated elimination of a helminth parasite. This raises the possibility that Th2 cells could contribute to asthma both by enhancing the allergic response and by increasing tissue remodeling. Initial human experiments suggest that regulation of amhipregulin expression is more complex in humans, but still linked to a Type 2 response. A clinical study has been initiated to compare amphiregulin expression in asthmatic patients and controls.

Credentials

Faculty Appointments

Education

1968
BS | University of Natal
Chemistry, and Physiology

1973
PhD | University of British Columbia
Microbiology

1969
B. Sc. | Rhodes University
Microbiology

Awards

2013
Novartis Prize for Basic Immunology
Sponsor: Novartis
Location: International

2012
Pillars of Immunology, 1989 article, IL-10 discovery
Sponsor: Journal of Immunology

2011
Thomson Reuters Citation Laureate
Location: http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/nobel/categories/medicine/

2008
Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize
Location: Frankfurt, Germany

2005
Pillars of Immunology, 1986 paper, T cell subsets

1997 - 2001
International Research Scholar, Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

1997
ASTECH award for Outstanding Leadership in Alberta Science

1997
William B. Coley Award, Cancer Research Institute (USA)

1996 - 1999
NIH Fogarty Scholar-in-Residence, 12 months total

1995
Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada

1994
Avery-Landsteiner Prize, German Society for Immunology

1993
Bernhard Cinader Lectureship, Canadian Society for Immunology.

1991 - 1996
International Research Scholar, Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

1975 - 1977
Centennial Fellow, MRC of Canada.

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Publications

Journal Articles

6/15/2016
Pichichero ME, Casey JR, Almudevar A, Basha S, Surendran N, Kaur R, Morris M, Livingstone AM, Mosmann TR. "Functional Immune Cell Differences Associated With Low Vaccine Responses in Infants." The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2016 Jun 15; 213(12):2014-9. Epub 2016 Feb 09.

2/10/2016
Finak G, Langweiler M, Jaimes M, Malek M, Taghiyar J, Korin Y, Raddassi K, Devine L, Obermoser G, Pekalski ML, Pontikos N, Diaz A, Heck S, Villanova F, Terrazzini N, Kern F, Qian Y, Stanton R, Wang K, Brandes A, Ramey J, Aghaeepour N, Mosmann T, Scheuermann RH, Reed E, Palucka K, Pascual V, Blomberg BB, Nestle F, Nussenblatt RB, Brinkman RR, Gottardo R, Maecker H, McCoy JP. "Standardizing Flow Cytometry Immunophenotyping Analysis from the Human ImmunoPhenotyping Consortium." Scientific reports.. 2016 Feb 10; 6:20686. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

1/2016
Rebhahn JA, Roumanes DR, Qi Y, Khan A, Thakar J, Rosenberg A, Lee FE, Quataert SA, Sharma G, Mosmann TR. "Competitive SWIFT cluster templates enhance detection of aging changes." Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology.. 2016 Jan 0; 89(1):59-70. Epub 2015 Oct 06.

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