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Deborah J. Fowell, Ph.D.

Contact Information

Phone Numbers

Administrative: (585) 273-1400

Office: (585) 273-3680

Fax: (585) 273-2452

Research Labs

Program for Advanced Immune Bioimaging

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Faculty Appointments



Regulation of Immunity at Tissue Sites of Infection and Autoimmunity

The acquisition and execution of CD4 effector function are tightly regulated and spatially compartmentalized. In the lymph node (LN), naïve CD4+ T cells acquire specialized functions by means of expression of distinct cytokines and acquire distinct homing properties. Therefore both the function and subsequent localization of effector cells appears to be pre-determined during differentiation in the LN. However, once CD4 effectors leave the lymph node their physical and functional fate is less well understood. The location and inflammatory context in which effector T cells are reactivated at the infection site are likely to determine the success of a given immune response. Our research focuses on mechanisms of immune regulation at tissue sites of inflammation.

Our studies with the protozoa Leishmania major suggest that this centrally (LN) generated effector repertoire can be further edited at the infected tissue site. Cytokine production in the inflamed tissue can be modulated at a number of levels including chemokine-driven differential recruitment of effector cells, the provision of signals for effector cell function and suppression by regulatory T cells (Tregs). The concept that tissue resident pathogens may subvert the centrally generated cytokine repertoire has important therapeutic implications. Novel therapies that focus on manipulating the local infection site to encourage appropriate recruitment or activation of effectors may be particularly beneficial.

Regulatory T cells play important immuno-modulatory roles at sites of inflammation in both infection and autoimmunity. Nonetheless, their mode of suppression remains controversial and is likely to be context dependent and modified by the inflammatory milieu. We focus on the molecular consequences of Treg encounter for the CD4+ T cells and have identified important points of control for early IL-2 production and for Th differentiation and effector function. Regulatory T cells can readily be found at sites of inflammation in infectious and autoimmune settings. It is clear that their activity also needs to be regulated in order to enable protective immunity to proceed but that these mechanisms of control may exacerbate autoimmune pathology. We are interested in the functional fate of Tregs at sites of inflammation, particularly in the context of autoimmune diabetes.



BS | Bristol University, UK
Cellular Pathology

PhD | Oxford University, UK

Post-doctoral Training & Residency

1994 - 1998
UCSF, San Francisco, CA. Infectious Disease Division (Mentor: Richard Locksley)

1992 - 1994
Oxford University, UK. (Mentor: Don Mason)


Deans Professorship
Sponsor: URMC

Basic Science Mentoring Award
Location: URMC

Graduate Student Society Faculty Award
Location: University of Rochester Medical School

Mary Jane Kugel Award
Sponsor: Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation

2006 - 2007
Discovery Concept Fund
Sponsor: Johnson and Johnson

2000 - 2004
HHMI Junior Faculty Start-up Award
Sponsor: Hughes
Location: University of Rochester

Pew Scholars Nominee
Location: University of Rochester

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Journal Articles

"Programming of Distinct Chemokine-Dependent and -Independent Search Strategies for Th1 and Th2 Cells Optimizes Function at Inflamed Sites." Immunity.. 2019 Aug 20; 51(2):298-309.e6. Epub 2019 Aug 06.

Schrock DC, Leddon SA, Hughson A, Miller J, Lacy-Hulbert A, Fowell DJ. "Pivotal role for ? integrins in sustained Tfh support of the germinal center response for long-lived plasma cell generation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 2019 Feb 15; Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Batchu SN, Dugbartey GJ, Wadosky KM, Mickelsen DM, Ko KA, Wood RW, Zhao Y, Yang X, Fowell DJ, Korshunov VA. "Innate Immune Cells Are Regulated by Axl in Hypertensive Kidney." The American journal of pathology.. 2018 Aug 0; 188(8):1794-1806.

Books & Chapters

Chapter Title: The Th1/Th2 Paradigm in infections
Book Title: Immunology of Infectious Disease
Author List: Mosmann, T. & Fowell, DJ
Edited By: Kaufmann, Sher & Ahmed
Published By: ASM press 2001