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TLR2 and TLR3 are expressed below tight junctions.  Spatial relationship between the tight junction protein, occludin (red), and the innate immune receptor, TLR2 (green), within the whole mount of adult human epidermis. Left Top image: Reconstructed 3D Z-stack confocal image. Left Bottom images, 2D Z-stack confocal images of the stratum granulosum (left) and stratum basal (right). Right Panel: TLR2 and TLR3 are expressed below tight junctions. Photomicrographs demonstrating the spatial relationship between TJs denoted by the presence of immunoreactivity for occludin (red) and TLR2 and TLR3 (green) are shown. Scale bar=40µm. In the bottom panel Z-stack images through the stratum granulosum (SG) to the stratum basale (SB) are rotated 90° (thickness=15 µm). For more details see: The cutaneous innate immune response in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Kuo IH, Yoshida T, De Benedetto A, Beck LA. 2013 Feb;131(2):266-78. Images courtesy of Takeshi Yoshida, Beck Lab.


Validation of GFP+ UAMS-1 Staph aureus migration through submicron pores is shown by confocal fluorescent microscopy of the bacteria (left-top view) and a 3D reconstructed image of five confocal slices (right side). Scale bar=1µm. For more details see: Evidence of Staphylococcus Aureus Deformation, Proliferation, and Migration in Canaliculi of Live Cortical Bone in Murine Models of Osteomyelitis. de Mesy Bentley KL, Trombetta R, Nishitani K, Bello-Irizarry SN, Ninomiya M, Zhang L, Chung HL, McGrath JL, Daiss JL, Awad HA, Kates SL, Schwarz EM.J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Dec 8. Image courtesy of Mark Ninomiya, Schwarz Lab.


Confocal maximum intensity projection of subiculum region from Alzheimer’s disease mouse model brain (3xTgAD mouse). Brain sections were stained for microglia (Iba1-green), Beta-Amyloid containing plaques (Congo red-red) and nuclei (Hoechst-blue). Scale bar=20µm. Image courtesy of Denise Herr, Elder Lab.


Confocal live imaging of Candida albicans in mouse ear (in vivo). Two strains of Candida (GFP and dTomato tagged) were mixed together and intradermally injected into the mouse ear. Twenty-four hours later confocal imaging of the live mouse ear was performed using a 40x long working distance lens on the FV1000 confocal microscope. Scale bar=20µm. Image courtesy of Melanie Wellington.


Laser Capture Microdissection of muscle cells. Muscle tissue was stained with hematoxylin and two regions of interest (ROI) were drawn: One around the nucleus (24-green) and the other around the remainder of the cell (23-purple). Each ROI was cut and catapulted into separate microcentrifuge tubes for downstream analysis using standard protocols. Scle bar=75µm. Image Courtesy of Thurman Wheeler.


Efferent fibers (green) innervate across the entirety of the Turtle hemicrista. Large scale montage image taken with the FV1000 confocal microscope (60x magnification tiled across 11 fields). Efferent fibers (green) contact hair cells (purple) across the width of the turtle hemicrista. DAPI stained nuclei are shown in blue. Scale bar = 50µm. For more details see: Efferent innervation of turtle semicircular canal cristae: comparisons with bird and mouse. Jordan PM, Fettis M, Holt JC. J Comp Neurol. 2015 Jun 1;523(8):1258-80. Image courtesy of Paivi Jordan, Holt Lab.


VEGFR3 is present on CK7+ trophoblasts in first trimester human placenta. Confocal projection image of whole mounted, immunofluorescently stained human placental tissue demonstrates that VEGFR3 is present on CK7+ trophoblasts during the first trimester of pregnancy. VEGFR3 (green) staining intensity on CK7 trophoblasts (red) did not change during the course of pregnancy. However, VEGFR3 staining on placental blood vessels did dramatically differ from first, second and third trimester. For more information see: Morphological and phenotypic analyses of the human placenta using whole mount immunofluorescence. Bushway ME, Gerber SA, Fenton BM, Miller RK, Lord EM, Murphy SP. Biol Reprod. 2014 May;90(5):110. Image courtesy of Megan Bushway, Murphy lab.

Mouse artery

Confocal maximum intensity projection of mouse carotid artery stained with α-SMA (red), Sca1 (green) and DAPI (blue). Left image was taken at 20x magnification, boxed area is magnified on right at 60x magnification. Image courtesy of Weimin Liu, Redmond Lab.