Cardiothoracic Surgery Residency Program The two year Cardiothoracic Surgery Residency Program at the University of Rochester is a mixture of both didactic and clinical service educational experiences, to ensure that our graduates are intellectually capable, and technically and emotionally mature surgeons. Simulation Course in Cardiac Surgery CT surgery is developing a national approach to utilize simulation in an organized fashion for resident education. Through the Grateful Donors Program at the University of Rochester Medical Center we have recently purchased a computerized high-fidelity Ramphal pig heart simulator and developed a course to enhance skills for CT residents, general surgery residents and NPs involved in CT critical care.These skill sets are essential for the everyday performance of cardiac surgery and the care of post op patients and simulation represents the most important change in traditional curricula which allows residents and NPS to develop and master new skills outside the pressured environment of the OR or ICU. First Year Level Each R6 CT resident will have a 3 month rotation on one of four separate surgical services which include: a) Adult Cardiac A (Drs. Hicks and, Massey), Emphasis on valvular operations, myocardial revascularizations, thoracic aortic operations, heart transplantation and implantation of ventricular assist devices and endovascular surgery b) Adult Cardiac B (Dr. Knight). On this service there is special emphasis on off pump coronary surgery, valvular operations and endovascular surgery, c) Congenital Cardiac (Drs. Alfieris and Gensini) Treatment of congenital heart disease including neonates and adults, d) Thoracic/Foregut Surgery (Watson, Jones, Litle and Peyre). This service includes significant exposure to operations for esophageal cancer, as well as the surgical treatment of reflux disorders & all forms of pulmonary diseases. Second Year Level Each R7 CT (Chief) resident will be assigned to the same services through which they rotated during the first year of their training. There are never two cardiothoracic residents on the same service. The R6 and R7 CT residents will have senior responsibility for the day-to-day care of patients and families on the service to which they are assigned. However, a resident may be asked to provide coverage on another CT service and be assigned to cover operations which do not conflict with their responsibilities to their primary service and which provide unusual educational value or operative experience. Duty Hours To ensure that residents are not required to perform excessive prolong periods of duty, the State of New York and ACGME have mandated an 80 hour limit on in-hospital work hours. To accomplish this, a home beeper schedule for coverage of night and weekend emergencies has been established. Following stabilization of patients on the floor or in the ICU, the resident will be on beeper call at home.