Health Encyclopedia

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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a bulge in the form of a balloon that forms in a weakened area in the abdominal aorta, the largest blood vessel in the abdomen.


ACL Injuries

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee can be injured during sporting activities, particularly when an athlete pivots suddenly. The ACL is one of four knee ligaments that stabilize the knee. This video discusses how the knee works and what you should do if you sustain an ACL injury.


Blood Sugar Testing

Monitoring your blood sugar level can help you control your diabetes and your risk for developing complications such as eye or kidney disease. View this video, and learn how and why checking your blood sugar regularly plays an important role in diabetes management.


Breast Biopsy

If you have a lump in your breast or a suspicious area on your mammogram or ultrasound, your health care provider may recommend a breast biopsy. Having a biopsy doesn't necessarily mean you have cancer. View this video to learn about the types of biopsies available and what to expect during the procedure.


Breast Cancer Screening

The goal of breast cancer screening is to detect cancer at the earliest possible stage, when it is most treatable. This video takes a look at the three components of breast screening—a breast self-exam, a clinical exam by your doctor, and a mammogram.


Bursitis

Bursitis is an inflammation of a closed sac of fluid located near the joints called a bursa. When the bursa becomes inflamed, it causes joint pain and swelling. Learn about the causes and treatment of bursitis, as well as what you can do to help prevent its recurrence.


Cardiac Arrhythmias

The beating of your heart is very organized, taking its cue from a built-in electrical system. A normal heart rate is regular, at 60 to 100 beats per minute. An arrhythmia is any kind of abnormal heartbeat—too fast, too slow, or irregular. This video explains different arrhythmias and what you should do if you have one.


Cardiac Catheterization

Cardiac catheterization procedure can diagnose a variety of heart conditions and determine the health of your coronary arteries, heart valves, and heart muscle. View this video to learn what happens during this procedure and various treatment options.


Cardiac Rehabilitation

Physical activity is healthy for your heart—even after you've had a heart attack or bypass surgery. It's important to start out slowly, under the supervision of cardiac rehab specialists. In this video, you'll learn what's involved in cardiac rehab and how it can benefit your health in the long term.


Cardiac Stress Tests

A cardiac stress test may be ordered if you have or are suspected of having coronary artery disease. This test evaluates your heart’s response to stress or exercise. Watch this video and learn what to expect before, during, and after this procedure. Other types of stress tests will also be presented.


Carotid Artery Disease

Carotid artery disease is a progressive disease. The carotid arteries, which are located in the neck, supply blood to the brain. Certain health problems damage the inside of the carotid arteries. Over time, this damage increases the chances of having a stroke. If you have carotid artery disease, treatment is available that may lower your risks for problems.


Cataracts

A cataract is a clouding of the natural lens within the eye that often occurs as a person ages. Although many cataracts develop without a known cause, long-term steroid use and diabetes are risk factors. Watch this video to find out what you can expect if you develop a cataract.


Cholesterol Screening

Your body needs cholesterol to make hormones and to keep your cells healthy. Cholesterol comes from two sources: your liver and your diet. However, if your diet exceeds the body’s need for cholesterol or saturated fats, your cholesterol level in your blood will increase. This video discusses treatments and lifestyle changes that may be prescribed by your doctor.


Colon Cancer Screening

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and women in the US. A low-fiber, high-fat diet appears to increase the risk for this type of cancer. In this video, you'll learn how colon cancer can be detected early and therefore, treated more successfully.


Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy is a procedure that lets your doctor see directly inside your entire colon using a flexible tube. It can detect intestinal problems such as bleeding or early signs of colorectal cancer. In this video, you'll learn what you might experience during a colonoscopy and what to expect given your particular results.


Common Changes During Pregnancy

Certain changes and discomforts occur during pregnancy - and are perfectly normal. Some of these changes include backache, frequent urination, and constipation. This video describes typical changes, how to safely relieve your discomfort, and what circumstances require a visit to your doctor.


Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

This procedure, a common type of open heart surgery, is one way to treat blockages in the arteries of the heart. Watch the video and learn about the surgery and what you can expect during recovery and rehabilitation.


Coronary Artery Disease: Treatment

Coronary artery disease (CAD) develops when the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle harden and narrow with a buildup of plaque. Treatment is primarily through lifestyle changes and medication. This video examines the goals of treatment.


Diabetes Related Eye Disease

People with diabetes may develop eye problems such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this video, you'll find out more about these problems and what you can do to prevent them. The best approach is good control of your blood sugar levels. You should also have a yearly eye exam.


Diabetes, Type 1

Recently updated to focus on patients diagnosed when an adult. Updated animations of blood glucose and insulin interaction provide a better understanding of Type 1 diabetes. Explains how Type 1 Diabetes cannot be prevented and helps patients learn how to manage the condition. Covers common risk factors, as well as treatment options and side effects. Also available in Spanish.


Diabetes, Type 2

Updated with new animations, this program explains how insulin resistance can lead to pre-diabetes and then to Type 2 Diabetes. A straightforward explanation of risk factors along with signs and symptoms and complications encourages the viewer to start thinking about lifestyle changes.


Diverticulitis

Diverticuli are herniations in the muscular layer of the colon that produce small, saclike swellings. Diverticulitis occurs when diverticuli become inflamed and infected. This video examines the possible causes of this condition, typical symptoms, and available treatments.


EGD: Upper Endoscopy

An upper endoscopy (EGD) allows a doctor to visualize your esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, or the upper part of your small intestine. EGD uses a special tube to help diagnose illnesses such as acid reflux or peptic ulcer disease. In this video, you'll learn what you might experience during the actual procedure, as well as its benefits, and any potential risks.


Exercise During Pregnancy

There are benefits to getting regular exercise during pregnancy for most women. Work with your health care provider to develop a safe exercise program you can do throughout your pregnancy. This video discusses the benefits of exercise, as well as recommendations on how to exercise.


Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

Sigmoidoscopy allows a doctor to examine the lower portion of your colon using a thin tube. It may be used to help diagnose certain intestinal problems that can cause symptoms such as constipation or diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Abnormal growths may also be detected. This video describes a sigmoidoscopy and how it may inform you about your colorectal health.


Foot Care for People with Diabetes

Maintaining normal blood sugar levels helps to prevent diabetic foot problems: nerve damage, poor circulation, and infection. This video demonstrates how to do daily foot care that can impact the development of these complications.


Heart Attacks

Millions of Americans suffer heart attacks every year. Half of these are fatal, and some of the rest cause severe damage to heart's function. This video explains what happens during a heart attack and what can be done to minimize the damage.


Heart Failure

Heart failure is a condition in which your heart cannot pump enough oxygenated blood to meet your body’s needs. This video explains the different types of heart failure, and the treatments that can help you manage your condition and live a healthy life.


Hip Arthritis and Replacement

When the hip joint is injured or develops arthritis, hip replacement surgery may be recommended. This video takes a closer look at hip arthritis and what to expect during hip replacement surgery.


Hysterectomy

Hysterectomy is a major surgical procedure in which the uterus and possibly the cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes are removed. Fibroids in the uterus are a common reason for a hysterectomy. In this video, you'll find out other medical conditions that may require a hysterectomy and what to expect if you need this procedure.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disease affecting the intestines. The cause of IBS is not known, but stress and emotions are thought to play a role. This video gives more details about this common disorder, which affects up to 15 percent of Americans.


Kidney Care for People with Diabetes

The delicate filtering network in your kidneys can be damaged over time by uncontrolled blood sugar, making it more difficult for your body to remove waste materials. This video explains why it's important to have your urine tested for protein if you have diabetes. It also offers other recommendations to help prevent kidney damage.


Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are a common problem, affecting about 12 percent of men and 5 percent of women. Stones are typically caused by an imbalance in the urinary system: too little water, too much oxalate, or too much calcium. In this video, you'll find out how the stones develop and what you can do to prevent them.


Labor and Delivery

Labor differs from woman to woman and from pregnancy to pregnancy, but common signs and symptoms can let you know when it is starting. Contractions that increase in strength and frequency are a sure sign you are in true labor. This video discusses the three stages of labor and delivery, as well as types of delivery.


Melanoma Screening

Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the US. Melanoma is the least common, but the most deadly of the three skin cancer types. In this video, you'll learn who's at risk for melanoma, what to look for to help detect this cancer, and what you can do to prevent it.


Meniscal Injuries

Knee injuries are common problems—and not just in athletes. Oftentimes, the cartilage, called the meniscus, is to blame. The meniscus can be damaged when you twist your upper leg while keeping your foot in one place. Watch this video to learn how meniscal injuries are treated and how you can prevent them.


Menopause

Menopause marks the end of a woman's menstrual periods. Menopause officially begins one year after your periods have stopped completely. This video explains what occurs in the time leading up to menopause and what can be done to relieve symptoms such as hot flashes.


Metered-Dose Inhaler

An MDI is the most commonly used inhaler in treating lung diseases such as asthma and COPD. Unfortunately, many people who need an inhaler do not use it correctly, so they don't receive the full benefit of the medication. Watch this video to learn the best way to use your inhaler.


Obesity

People can become obese by taking in more calories than they burn. Obesity also appears to be influenced by genetics. This video discusses the health risks associated with obesity and what treatment and lifestyle changes are commonly recommended.


Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis most commonly affects the knees, hips, spine, and other weight-bearing joints in the body. Sometimes called the "wear and tear" arthritis, advancing age is a risk factor, but so are obesity and severe injury to the joint. This video discusses the symptoms, treatment, and steps you can take to minimize pain from osteoarthritis.


Ovarian Cysts

An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms on or in the ovary. Most cysts are harmless and don't cause any symptoms. In this video, you'll learn about different types of ovarian cysts and what treatment may be recommended if you have one.


Pacemakers

You may need a pacemaker if you have an abnormal heartbeat. To understand how a pacemaker works, watch this video. It will also help you learn how to care for and live with your pacemaker.


Peak Flow Meter

A peak flow meter for asthma is like a thermometer for a fever - it helps you monitor what's going on inside your lungs by measuring airflow out of the lungs. The meter can tell you if your airways are narrowing well before asthma symptoms begin. Learn how to use a peak flow meter, how to find your "personal best," and how to set your peak flow zones.


Peripheral Arterial Disease

Peripheral arterial disease occurs when the arteries that supply blood to your extremities (your feet, legs and arms) or major organs (your brain, kidneys or intestine) harden and narrow. This process, known as atherosclerosis, is a gradual buildup of plaque in blood vessels.


Pre-Diabetes

Pre-diabetes means your blood sugar level is above normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Pre-diabetes increases the risk for developing diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. The good news is, with healthy lifestyle changes, you can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Take action; watch this video to find out more about what you can do.


Prenatal Testing

Pre-pregnancy counseling and a physical exam will help to identify any tests you should have done before you get pregnant. Once pregnant, you should have certain routine tests, as well as other tests that reflect your specific needs. This video offers details on the range of prenatal testing offered.


Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. One in five men will have a diagnosis of prostate cancer in his lifetime. In this video, you'll find out about diagnostic tests available, as well as recommended treatments.


Rotator Cuff Tendinitis/Tear

Having shoulder pain or problems lifting your arms over your head? You may have tendonitis or a tear in the muscles and tendons that hold your shoulder in place, called the rotator cuff. This video explains symptoms of this syndrome, possible treatments, and ways you can prevent shoulder injuries.


Shoulder Arthritis and Replacement

Although used less commonly than knee or hip replacement, shoulder replacement surgery removes diseased or damaged bone in the shoulder and replaces it with an artificial joint. If arthritis pain is unrelieved by other methods, you may need replacement surgery. Learn how the shoulder works and what to expect in replacement surgery.


Smoking Cessation, Relapse Prevention

A relapse happens when you return to smoking after a period of quitting—usually after the first three months. Most people experience several relapses before quitting for good. This video discusses situations that can trigger a relapse and offers a range of coping skills and behavior changes to get you back on track.


Smoking Cessation, Stages of Change

Cigarette smoking is the single leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. But because of the physical and psychological addiction to nicotine, smokers find it quite difficult to quit. This video offers important reasons to stop smoking and a framework of change to help you achieve your goal.


Stroke

A stroke occurs when either too much blood or too little blood disrupts blood flow to part of the brain. This deprives brain tissue of necessary oxygen and nutrients. Within minutes brain cells begin to die and the result is a loss of brain function.


Total Knee Replacement

Degenerative changes or injury to the knee can cause pain, swelling, and immobility. When knee pain affects your quality of life, you may be a candidate for total knee replacement. In this video, you will learn about knee replacement surgery, its benefits, and its potential risks.


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