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David Williams

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Rochester, River Campus
DepartmentThe Institute for Optics
AddressUniversity of Rochester
500 Joseph C. Wilson Blvd.
Box 270268
Rochester NY 14611
Other Positions
TitleProfessor
InstitutionSchool of Medicine and Dentistry
DepartmentOphthalmology

 
 Overview
We use adaptive optics, the same technique used by astronomers to take clear pictures of the sky through the earth's turbulent atmosphere, to explore the organization and function of the retina and the optical and neural limits on human vision. Just as atmospheric turbulence distorts light arriving from distant stars, imperfections in the eye's cornea and lens distort light passing through the eye, causing blurred images to be formed on the retina.

With adaptive optics, which uses a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to measure the eye's imperfections and a deformable mirror to correct them, we can correct most of the optical aberrations in the eye, providing the eye with the best image quality ever achieved. This means we can look into the eye and see the retina more clearly than was ever possible before, even allowing us to see individual cells in the living retina, but also that we can look out from the eye and see a much sharper view of the world than ever seen before. In addition to learning more about the retina, we use adaptive optics to examine the potential for improving vision by correcting the optical aberrations of the eye, and to probe the neural limits on human vision.

 
 Selected Publications
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  1. Schallek J, Geng Y, Nguyen H, Williams DR. Morphology and topography of retinal pericytes in the living mouse retina using in vivo adaptive optics imaging and ex vivo characterization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Dec; 54(13):8237-50.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Rangel-Fonseca P, Gómez-Vieyra A, Malacara-Hernández D, Wilson MC, Williams DR, Rossi EA. Automated segmentation of retinal pigment epithelium cells in fluorescence adaptive optics images. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2013 Dec 1; 30(12):2595-604.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Rossi EA, Rangel-Fonseca P, Parkins K, Fischer W, Latchney LR, Folwell MA, Williams DR, Dubra A, Chung MM. In vivo imaging of retinal pigment epithelium cells in age related macular degeneration. Biomed Opt Express. 2013; 4(11):2527-39.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Sharma R, Yin L, Geng Y, Merigan WH, Palczewska G, Palczewski K, Williams DR, Hunter JJ. In vivo two-photon imaging of the mouse retina. Biomed Opt Express. 2013; 4(8):1285-93.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Rossi EA, Achtman RL, Guidon A, Williams DR, Roorda A, Bavelier D, Carroll J. Visual function and cortical organization in carriers of blue cone monochromacy. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e57956.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Yin L, Geng Y, Osakada F, Sharma R, Cetin AH, Callaway EM, Williams DR, Merigan WH. Imaging light responses of retinal ganglion cells in the living mouse eye. J Neurophysiol. 2013 May; 109(9):2415-21.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Carroll J, Dubra A, Gardner JC, Mizrahi-Meissonnier L, Cooper RF, Dubis AM, Nordgren R, Genead M, Connor TB, Stepien KE, Sharon D, Hunt DM, Banin E, Hardcastle AJ, Moore AT, Williams DR, Fishman G, Neitz J, Neitz M, Michaelides M. The effect of cone opsin mutations on retinal structure and the integrity of the photoreceptor mosaic. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53(13):8006-15.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Williams DR. Miles to go before we sleep: racial inequities in health. J Health Soc Behav. 2012 Sep; 53(3):279-95.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Yamamoto K, Zhou J, Hunter JJ, Williams DR, Sparrow JR. Toward an understanding of bisretinoid autofluorescence bleaching and recovery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jun; 53(7):3536-44.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Read SA, Williams DR, Wojtkowski M, Roorda A, Nichols JJ, Mutti DO, Kaufman PL, Carney LG. Imaging and measurement in the eye: now and ahead. Optom Vis Sci. 2012 May; 89(5):521-3.
    View in: PubMed
  11. White K, Haas JS, Williams DR. Elucidating the role of place in health care disparities: the example of racial/ethnic residential segregation. Health Serv Res. 2012 Jun; 47(3 Pt 2):1278-99.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Williams DR, Kontos EZ, Viswanath K, Haas JS, Lathan CS, MacConaill LE, Chen J, Ayanian JZ. Integrating multiple social statuses in health disparities research: the case of lung cancer. Health Serv Res. 2012 Jun; 47(3 Pt 2):1255-77.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Geng Y, Dubra A, Yin L, Merigan WH, Sharma R, Libby RT, Williams DR. Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye. Biomed Opt Express. 2012 Apr 1; 3(4):715-34.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Hunter JJ, Morgan JI, Merigan WH, Sliney DH, Sparrow JR, Williams DR. The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012 Jan; 31(1):28-42.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Sallo FB, Leung I, Chung M, Wolf-Schnurrbusch UE, Dubra A, Williams DR, Clemons T, Pauleikhoff D, Bird AC, Peto T. Retinal crystals in type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia. Ophthalmology. 2011 Dec; 118(12):2461-7.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Dubra A, Sulai Y, Norris JL, Cooper RF, Dubis AM, Williams DR, Carroll J. Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope. Biomed Opt Express. 2011 Jul 1; 2(7):1864-76.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Williams DR. Imaging single cells in the living retina. Vision Res. 2011 Jul 1; 51(13):1379-96.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Yin L, Greenberg K, Hunter JJ, Dalkara D, Kolstad KD, Masella BD, Wolfe R, Visel M, Stone D, Libby RT, Diloreto D, Schaffer D, Flannery J, Williams DR, Merigan WH. Intravitreal injection of AAV2 transduces macaque inner retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Apr; 52(5):2775-83.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Geng Y, Schery LA, Sharma R, Dubra A, Ahmad K, Libby RT, Williams DR. Optical properties of the mouse eye. Biomed Opt Express. 2011; 2(4):717-38.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Doble N, Choi SS, Codona JL, Christou J, Enoch JM, Williams DR. In vivo imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic. Opt Lett. 2011 Jan 1; 36(1):31-3.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Hunter JJ, Masella B, Dubra A, Sharma R, Yin L, Merigan WH, Palczewska G, Palczewski K, Williams DR. Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy. Biomed Opt Express. 2010; 2(1):139-48.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Wagner-Schuman M, Neitz J, Rha J, Williams DR, Neitz M, Carroll J. Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: a stop codon versus gene deletions. Vision Res. 2010 Nov 23; 50(23):2396-402.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Mujahid MS, Diez Roux AV, Cooper RC, Shea S, Williams DR. Neighborhood stressors and race/ethnic differences in hypertension prevalence (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Am J Hypertens. 2011 Feb; 24(2):187-93.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Shroff SA, Fienup JR, Williams DR. Lateral superresolution using a posteriori phase shift estimation for a moving object: experimental results. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2010 Aug 1; 27(8):1770-82.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Carroll J, Rossi EA, Porter J, Neitz J, Roorda A, Williams DR, Neitz M. Deletion of the X-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic. Vision Res. 2010 Sep 15; 50(19):1989-99.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Zhou Y, Chen L, Barlogie B, Stephens O, Wu X, Williams DR, Cartron MA, van Rhee F, Nair B, Waheed S, Pineda-Roman M, Alsayed Y, Anaissie E, Shaughnessy JD. High-risk myeloma is associated with global elevation of miRNAs and overexpression of EIF2C2/AGO2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Apr 27; 107(17):7904-9.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Carroll J, Baraas RC, Wagner-Schuman M, Rha J, Siebe CA, Sloan C, Tait DM, Thompson S, Morgan JI, Neitz J, Williams DR, Foster DH, Neitz M. Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Dec 8; 106(49):20948-53.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Gómez-Vieyra A, Dubra A, Malacara-Hernández D, Williams DR. First-order design of off-axis reflective ophthalmic adaptive optics systems using afocal telescopes. Opt Express. 2009 Oct 12; 17(21):18906-19.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Scoles D, Gray DC, Hunter JJ, Wolfe R, Gee BP, Geng Y, Masella BD, Libby RT, Russell S, Williams DR, Merigan WH. In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison. BMC Ophthalmol. 2009; 9:9.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Morgan JI, Hunter JJ, Merigan WH, Williams DR. The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Dec; 50(12):6015-22.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Geng Y, Greenberg KP, Wolfe R, Gray DC, Hunter JJ, Dubra A, Flannery JG, Williams DR, Porter J. In vivo imaging of microscopic structures in the rat retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Dec; 50(12):5872-9.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Williams DR, Sternthal M, Wright RJ. Social determinants: taking the social context of asthma seriously. Pediatrics. 2009 Mar; 123 Suppl 3:S174-84.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Shroff SA, Fienup JR, Williams DR. Phase-shift estimation in sinusoidally illuminated images for lateral superresolution. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2009 Feb; 26(2):413-24.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Friedman EM, Williams DR, Singer BH, Ryff CD. Chronic discrimination predicts higher circulating levels of E-selectin in a national sample: the MIDUS study. Brain Behav Immun. 2009 Jul; 23(5):684-92.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Williams DR, Mohammed SA. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research. J Behav Med. 2009 Feb; 32(1):20-47.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Morgan JI, Dubra A, Wolfe R, Merigan WH, Williams DR. In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Mar; 50(3):1350-9.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Brainard DH, Williams DR, Hofer H. Trichromatic reconstruction from the interleaved cone mosaic: Bayesian model and the color appearance of small spots. J Vis. 2008; 8(5):15.1-23.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Carroll J, Choi SS, Williams DR. In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic of a rod monochromat. Vision Res. 2008 Nov; 48(26):2564-8.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Morgan JI, Hunter JJ, Masella B, Wolfe R, Gray DC, Merigan WH, Delori FC, Williams DR. Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Aug; 49(8):3715-29.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Acevedo-Garcia D, Osypuk TL, McArdle N, Williams DR. Toward a policy-relevant analysis of geographic and racial/ethnic disparities in child health. Health Aff (Millwood). 2008 Mar-Apr; 27(2):321-33.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Gray DC, Wolfe R, Gee BP, Scoles D, Geng Y, Masella BD, Dubra A, Luque S, Williams DR, Merigan WH. In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Jan; 49(1):467-73.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Borrell LN, Jacobs DR, Williams DR, Pletcher MJ, Houston TK, Kiefe CI. Self-reported racial discrimination and substance use in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Adults Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Nov 1; 166(9):1068-79.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Chen L, Artal P, Gutierrez D, Williams DR. Neural compensation for the best aberration correction. J Vis. 2007; 7(10):9.1-9.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Doble N, Miller DT, Yoon G, Williams DR. Requirements for discrete actuator and segmented wavefront correctors for aberration compensation in two large populations of human eyes. Appl Opt. 2007 Jul 10; 46(20):4501-14.
    View in: PubMed
  45. González HM, Whitfield KE, West BT, Williams DR, Lichtenberg PA, Jackson JS. Modified-Symbol Digit Modalities Test for African Americans, Caribbean Black Americans, and non-Latino Whites: nationally representative normative data from the National Survey of American Life. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007 Jun; 22(5):605-13.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Baraas RC, Carroll J, Gunther KL, Chung M, Williams DR, Foster DH, Neitz M. Adaptive optics retinal imaging reveals S-cone dystrophy in tritan color-vision deficiency. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2007 May; 24(5):1438-47.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Sabesan R, Jeong TM, Carvalho L, Cox IG, Williams DR, Yoon G. Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes. Opt Lett. 2007 Apr 15; 32(8):1000-2.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Makous W, Carroll J, Wolfing JI, Lin J, Christie N, Williams DR. Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Sep; 47(9):4160-7.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Gray DC, Merigan W, Wolfing JI, Gee BP, Porter J, Dubra A, Twietmeyer TH, Ahamd K, Tumbar R, Reinholz F, Williams DR. In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells. Opt Express. 2006 Aug 7; 14(16):7144-58.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Schulz AJ, Gravlee CC, Williams DR, Israel BA, Mentz G, Rowe Z. Discrimination, symptoms of depression, and self-rated health among african american women in detroit: results from a longitudinal analysis. Am J Public Health. 2006 Jul; 96(7):1265-70.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Wolfing JI, Chung M, Carroll J, Roorda A, Williams DR. High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy. Ophthalmology. 2006 Jun; 113(6):1019.e1.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Porter J, Yoon G, Lozano D, Wolfing J, Tumbar R, Macrae S, Cox IG, Williams DR. Aberrations induced in wavefront-guided laser refractive surgery due to shifts between natural and dilated pupil center locations. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006 Jan; 32(1):21-32.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Chen L, Kruger PB, Hofer H, Singer B, Williams DR. Accommodation with higher-order monochromatic aberrations corrected with adaptive optics. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2006 Jan; 23(1):1-8.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Choi SS, Doble N, Lin J, Christou J, Williams DR. Effect of wavelength on in vivo images of the human cone mosaic. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2005 Dec; 22(12):2598-605.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Porter J, Yoon G, MacRae S, Pan G, Twietmeyer T, Cox IG, Williams DR. Surgeon offsets and dynamic eye movements in laser refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005 Nov; 31(11):2058-66.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Hofer H, Carroll J, Neitz J, Neitz M, Williams DR. Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic. J Neurosci. 2005 Oct 19; 25(42):9669-79.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Putnam NM, Hofer HJ, Doble N, Chen L, Carroll J, Williams DR. The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic. J Vis. 2005; 5(7):632-9.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Hofer H, Singer B, Williams DR. Different sensations from cones with the same photopigment. J Vis. 2005; 5(5):444-54.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Chen L, Singer B, Guirao A, Porter J, Williams DR. Image metrics for predicting subjective image quality. Optom Vis Sci. 2005 May; 82(5):358-69.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Karlamangla AS, Singer BH, Williams DR, Schwartz JE, Matthews KA, Kiefe CI, Seeman TE. Impact of socioeconomic status on longitudinal accumulation of cardiovascular risk in young adults: the CARDIA Study (USA). Soc Sci Med. 2005 Mar; 60(5):999-1015.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Payne TJ, Wyatt SB, Mosley TH, Dubbert PM, Guiterrez-Mohammed ML, Calvin RL, Taylor HA, Williams DR. Sociocultural methods in the Jackson Heart Study: conceptual and descriptive overview. Ethn Dis. 2005; 15(4 Suppl 6):S6-38-48.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Yoon G, Macrae S, Williams DR, Cox IG. Causes of spherical aberration induced by laser refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005 Jan; 31(1):127-35.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Fiscella K, Williams DR. Health disparities based on socioeconomic inequities: implications for urban health care. Acad Med. 2004 Dec; 79(12):1139-47.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Yoon G, Jeong TM, Cox IG, Williams DR. Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with phase plates in normal eyes. J Refract Surg. 2004 Sep-Oct; 20(5):S523-7.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Christou JC, Roorda A, Williams DR. Deconvolution of adaptive optics retinal images. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2004 Aug; 21(8):1393-401.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Travassos C, Williams DR. The concept and measurement of race and their relationship to public health: a review focused on Brazil and the United States. Cad Saude Publica. 2004 May-Jun; 20(3):660-78.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Carroll J, Neitz M, Hofer H, Neitz J, Williams DR. Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jun 1; 101(22):8461-6.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Artal P, Chen L, Fernández EJ, Singer B, Manzanera S, Williams DR. Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations. J Vis. 2004 Apr 16; 4(4):281-7.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Diller L, Packer OS, Verweij J, McMahon MJ, Williams DR, Dacey DM. L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina. J Neurosci. 2004 Feb 4; 24(5):1079-88.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Pallikaris A, Williams DR, Hofer H. The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Oct; 44(10):4580-92.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Artal P, Chen L, Fernández EJ, Singer B, Manzanera S, Williams DR. Adaptive optics for vision: the eye's adaptation to point spread function. J Refract Surg. 2003 Sep-Oct; 19(5):S585-7.
    View in: PubMed
  72. Porter J, MacRae S, Yoon G, Roberts C, Cox IG, Williams DR. Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye's wave aberration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Aug; 136(2):327-37.
    View in: PubMed
  73. Guirao A, Williams DR. A method to predict refractive errors from wave aberration data. Optom Vis Sci. 2003 Jan; 80(1):36-42.
    View in: PubMed
  74. Williams DR. Race, health, and health care. St Louis Univ Law J. 2003; 48(1):13-35.
    View in: PubMed
  75. Guirao A, Williams DR, MacRae SM. Effect of beam size on the expected benefit of customized laser refractive surgery. J Refract Surg. 2003 Jan-Feb; 19(1):15-23.
    View in: PubMed
  76. Doble N, Yoon G, Chen L, Bierden P, Singer B, Olivier S, Williams DR. Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye. Opt Lett. 2002 Sep 1; 27(17):1537-9.
    View in: PubMed
  77. Neitz J, Carroll J, Yamauchi Y, Neitz M, Williams DR. Color perception is mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults. Neuron. 2002 Aug 15; 35(4):783-92.
    View in: PubMed
  78. Williams DR. Racial/ethnic variations in women's health: the social embeddedness of health. Am J Public Health. 2002 Apr; 92(4):588-97.
    View in: PubMed
  79. Guirao A, Porter J, Williams DR, Cox IG. Calculated impact of higher-order monochromatic aberrations on retinal image quality in a population of human eyes. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2002 Mar; 19(3):620-8.
    View in: PubMed
  80. Yoon GY, Williams DR. Visual performance after correcting the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of the eye. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2002 Feb; 19(2):266-75.
    View in: PubMed
  81. Guirao A, Cox IG, Williams DR. Method for optimizing the correction of the eye's higher-order aberrations in the presence of decentrations. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2002 Jan; 19(1):126-8.
    View in: PubMed
  82. Roorda A, Williams DR. Optical fiber properties of individual human cones. J Vis. 2002; 2(5):404-12.
    View in: PubMed
  83. Guirao A, Porter J, Williams DR, Cox IG. Calculated impact of higher-order monochromatic aberrations on retinal image quality in a population of human eyes. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2002 Jan; 19(1):1-9.
    View in: PubMed
  84. Schulz AJ, Williams DR, Israel BA, Lempert LB. Racial and spatial relations as fundamental determinants of health in Detroit. Milbank Q. 2002; 80(4):677-707, iv.
    View in: PubMed
  85. Porter J, Guirao A, Cox IG, Williams DR. Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2001 Aug; 18(8):1793-803.
    View in: PubMed
  86. Hofer H, Artal P, Singer B, Aragón JL, Williams DR. Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2001 Mar; 18(3):497-506.
    View in: PubMed
  87. Williams D, Yoon GY, Porter J, Guirao A, Hofer H, Cox I. Visual benefit of correcting higher order aberrations of the eye. J Refract Surg. 2000 Sep-Oct; 16(5):S554-9.
    View in: PubMed
  88. McMahon MJ, Lankheet MJ, Lennie P, Williams DR. Fine structure of parvocellular receptive fields in the primate fovea revealed by laser interferometry. J Neurosci. 2000 Mar 1; 20(5):2043-53.
    View in: PubMed
  89. Roorda A, Williams DR. The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye. Nature. 1999 Feb 11; 397(6719):520-2.
    View in: PubMed
  90. Liang J, Williams DR. Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 1997 Nov; 14(11):2873-83.
    View in: PubMed
  91. Liang J, Williams DR, Miller DT. Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 1997 Nov; 14(11):2884-92.
    View in: PubMed
  92. Miller DT, Williams DR, Morris GM, Liang J. Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye. Vision Res. 1996 Apr; 36(8):1067-79.
    View in: PubMed
  93. Williams DR, Artal P, Navarro R, McMahon MJ, Brainard DH. Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye. Vision Res. 1996 Apr; 36(8):1103-14.
    View in: PubMed
  94. Packer OS, Williams DR, Bensinger DG. Photopigment transmittance imaging of the primate photoreceptor mosaic. J Neurosci. 1996 Apr 1; 16(7):2251-60.
    View in: PubMed
  95. Williams DR, Brainard DH, McMahon MJ, Navarro R. Double-pass and interferometric measures of the optical quality of the eye. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 1994 Dec; 11(12):3123-35.
    View in: PubMed
  96. Sekiguchi N, Williams DR, Brainard DH. Aberration-free measurements of the visibility of isoluminant gratings. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 1993 Oct; 10(10):2105-17.
    View in: PubMed
  97. Sekiguchi N, Williams DR, Brainard DH. Efficiency in detection of isoluminant and isochromatic interference fringes. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 1993 Oct; 10(10):2118-33.
    View in: PubMed
  98. Chen B, Makous W, Williams DR. Serial spatial filters in vision. Vision Res. 1993 Feb; 33(3):413-27.
    View in: PubMed
  99. Brainard DH, Williams DR. Spatial reconstruction of signals from short-wavelength cones. Vision Res. 1993 Jan; 33(1):105-16.
    View in: PubMed
  100. Galvin SJ, Williams DR. No aliasing at edges in normal viewing. Vision Res. 1992 Dec; 32(12):2251-9.
    View in: PubMed
  101. Packer O, Williams DR. Blurring by fixational eye movements. Vision Res. 1992 Oct; 32(10):1931-9.
    View in: PubMed
  102. Sekiguchi N, Williams DR, Packer O. Nonlinear distortion of gratings at the foveal resolution limit. Vision Res. 1991; 31(5):815-31.
    View in: PubMed
  103. Coletta NJ, Williams DR, Tiana CL. Consequences of spatial sampling for human motion perception. Vision Res. 1990; 30(11):1631-48.
    View in: PubMed
  104. Williams DR. Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye. Vision Res. 1988; 28(3):433-54.
    View in: PubMed

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