Tests and Procedures A variety of tests may take place in your pediatrician's office. These screening tests usually take place during a routine well-child visit. Some are general screening tests, prescribed if there are certain risk factors. These tests may include the following. Cholesterol Blood lead levels Scoliosis Tuberculosis When your child is sick, if the doctor suspects a certain illness or condition, he or she may perform one or more laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis. Blood tests Allergy tests Throat culture Some conditions, may require more intense testing. In these instances, your child's pediatrician might refer you to a specialist.