Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
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What is cancer?
Cancer is when cells in the body change and grow out of control. Your body is made
up of tiny building blocks called cells. Normal cells grow when your body needs them,
and die when your body does not need them any longer. Cancer is made up of abnormal
cells that grow even though your body doesn’t need them. In most types of cancer,
the abnormal cells grow to form a lump or mass called a tumor.
What is leukemia?
Leukemia is different from most other types of cancer. Leukemia is cancer that starts
in the bone marrow, which is where new blood cells are made. Leukemia cells are early
forms of blood cells, most often white blood cells. When a person has leukemia, the
body makes too many abnormal blood cells. Leukemia cells do not usually form tumors,
but they can travel with the blood all over the body. That means CLL can affect organs
all over the body.
Two types of white blood cells can turn into leukemia:
Leukemia can also be either acute or chronic. Acute leukemia tends to grow very quickly
and needs to be treated right away. Chronic leukemia often grows more slowly.
What is acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)?
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of leukemia that starts in very early forms
of lymphocytes. These are called lymphoblasts, or just blasts. The condition is also
known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia. As the blasts grow, they can crowd out the
normal cells in the bone marrow. This can lead to not enough of different types of
blood cells. People with ALL have too many lymphocytes in their blood, but these cells
are not normal and don't help fight infection. In fact, people with ALL are more likely
to get infection. They can also have not enough red blood cells (anemia), which can
cause fatigue. And they can have not enough platelets, which can lead to excess bleeding
ALL is a type of acute leukemia. This means it tends to grow quickly and needs to
be treated right away.
Subtypes of ALL
ALL also comes in different subtypes. These are based on what type of lymphocytes
the leukemia starts in, and how mature the cells are. Which subtype of ALL you have
can affect both your treatment and prognosis (outlook). Ask your doctor about your
subtype of ALL and what it means in your case. The subtypes include:
This subtype of ALL starts in B lymphocytes (B cells). It can be one of the below:
This subtype of ALL starts in T lymphocytes (T cells). It can be one of the below:
Mature T-cell ALL
Talk with your healthcare provider
If you have questions about your ALL, talk with your healthcare provider. Your healthcare
provider can help you understand more about this type of leukemia.
Online Medical Reviewers:
- Alteri, Rick, MD
- Gersten, Todd, MD
Also see: Leukemia in Children