What is a learning disorder in children?
A learning disorder is when a child has trouble learning in certain school subjects.
Your child may have problems with reading, math, or writing. Skills are below what's
expected for the child’s age, grade level, and intelligence. The problem is bad enough
to interfere with school or everyday activities.
What causes a learning disorder in a child?
Experts believe a learning disorder happens because of a problem in the nervous system.
The problem may be in the brain's structure. Or the chemicals in the brain may not
work right. As a result, a child with a learning disorder receives, processes, or
communicates information in a different way.
Which children are at risk for a learning disorder?
Learning disorders may run in families. They may also be linked to:
Problems during pregnancy
Problems during birth or early infancy
Other health conditions, such as ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder)
What are the symptoms of a learning disorder in a child?
Each child’s symptoms may vary. Common symptoms are:
Reading disorder. A child reads below the expected level given his or her age, grade in school, and
intelligence. Children with this problem read slowly and have trouble understanding
what they read. They may have trouble with word recognition. They may confuse words
that look alike. This disorder is sometimes called dyslexia.
Mathematics disorder. A child has problems with numbers. They may have trouble counting, copying numbers
the right way, adding and carrying numbers, learning multiplication tables, and recognizing
Disorder of written expression. A child has trouble with writing skills. They struggle with grammar and punctuation,
spelling, paragraph organization, or written composition.
How is a learning disorder diagnosed in a child?
Parents or teachers may first spot the signs of a learning disorder in a child. The
child may often have trouble with:
Reading, spelling, writing, or doing math problems
Understanding or following directions
Telling right from left
Reversing letters or numbers. Examples are confusing b and d, or 12 and 21.
Before a mental health referral is made, your child's healthcare provider will want
to rule out any other health problems. Once this is done, a mental health provider,
such as a school psychologist, can appropriately diagnose a learning disorder. The
provider will talk with parents and teachers. The child will also need educational
and mental health testing.
Public schools have a duty to evaluate children with certain learning problems. When
appropriate, these schools must also offer treatment. Check with your school to find
out how to request an evaluation. An evaluation identifies if your child has a learning
disorder. It also finds learning strengths and weaknesses. The results help decide
on your child’s educational needs and best placement at school.
A learning disability may greatly interfere with your child’s ability to succeed in
school. If so, then they may be eligible for certain protections and reasonable accommodations
under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) or Section 504 of the Civil Rights
Act. Talk with your child’s teacher or principal about how to get more information.
How is a learning disorder treated in a child?
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also
depend on how severe the condition is.
Parents, teachers, and mental health experts work together to help a child. Treatments
Individual or group classes
Special classes or resources
Medicines, if a child is easily distracted or hyperactive
How can I help prevent a learning disorder in my child?
Experts don’t know how to prevent learning disorders in children. But spotting and
treating one early can ease symptoms and enhance your child’s normal development.
It can also improve your child’s quality of life.
How can I help my child live with a learning disorder?
A learning disorder has no cure. But early diagnosis and treatment can make it less
severe. It will also improve your child’s learning potential and quality of life.
You play a key part in your child’s treatment and well-being. Here are things you
can do to help your child:
Keep all appointments with your child’s healthcare provider and school personnel.
Work with your child’s healthcare providers and school to create a treatment plan.
Your child likely will get care from a team that may include the primary care provider,
school psychologists, therapists, social workers, and experts from your child’s school.
Your child’s care team will depend on your child’s needs and how serious the learning
Reach out for support from local community services. Being in touch with other parents
who have a child with a learning disorder may be helpful.
Key points about a learning disorder in a child
A learning disorder is when a child has problems with reading, math, or writing.
It may be caused by a problem in how the brain is structured or in how the chemicals
in the brain work.
Physical problems and mental health issues that might interfere with learning are
ruled out before a learning disorder is diagnosed.
A child psychiatrist or other mental health expert , such as a school psychologist,
can diagnose a learning disorder. They do an evaluation to find the child’s learning
strengths and weaknesses.
Treatment may include therapy, special classes, or medicine.
It's critical to work closely with your child's educational team, including teachers,
school psychologists, and administrators.
If a learning disability greatly interferes with your child’s ability to succeed in
school, they may be eligible for reasonable accommodations under the ADA or Section
504 of the Civil Rights Act. Talk with your child’s teacher or principal about how
to get more information.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child.
Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose
for that visit.
Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important
if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.
Online Medical Reviewers:
- L Renee Watson MSN RN
- Marianne Fraser MSN RN
- Paul Ballas MD