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Craig Morrell, D.V.M., Ph.D.

Craig Morrell, D.V.M., Ph.D.

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About Me

Dr. Morrell earned his undergraduate degree from Brown University in 1995. He then graduated from Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine in 2000 before beginning a comparative pathology fellowship at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. While at Hopkins Dr. Morrell concurrently c...
Dr. Morrell earned his undergraduate degree from Brown University in 1995. He then graduated from Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine in 2000 before beginning a comparative pathology fellowship at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. While at Hopkins Dr. Morrell concurrently completed a PhD in the laboratory of Dr. Charles Lowenstein in 2005 where he investigated molecular mechanisms of nitric oxide inhibition of platelet degranulation and received a K08 award. Dr. Morrell then established an \ independent laboratory in the Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology at Hopkins from 2005-2009, before moving to the University of Rochester's Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute. His current research interests include platelets and vascular inflammation.

Faculty Appointments

Professor - Department of Medicine, Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute (SMD)

Dean's Professorship - Department of Medicine (SMD)

Associate Director - Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute

Professor - Department of Microbiology and Immunology (SMD) - Joint

Professor - Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (SMD) - Joint

Credentials

Post-doctoral Training & Residency

Department of Comparative Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 2000 - 2005

Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 2000 - 2005

Education

PhD | The Johns Hopkins U Sch Medicine. Pathobiology. 2005

DVM | Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine. Veterinary Medicine. 2000

Sc.B | Brown University. Biology. 1995

Awards

Kenneth M. Brinkous Young Investigators Prize in Thrombosis Research. 2008

Deans Gift, A monetary research award given to new investigators of outstanding potential. 2006

Travel Scholarship. 2005

Travel Scholarship. 2005

Young Investigator Award, Basic Science. 2004

Cheif Fellow, Comparative Pathology. 2003 - 2004

Young Investigators Award, First Place, Experimental Disease. 2003

Pathology Award-Excellence in Pathology. 2000

Research

Research in our lab is focused on the complex interface between platelets, the vasculature, and immune cells. Platelets are not only the cellular mediators of thrombosis, but also have important roles in inflammatory and immune cell responses. Ongoing and past studies by our group have examined plat...
Research in our lab is focused on the complex interface between platelets, the vasculature, and immune cells. Platelets are not only the cellular mediators of thrombosis, but also have important roles in inflammatory and immune cell responses. Ongoing and past studies by our group have examined platelet, and platelet derived inflammatory mediator interactions with both vascular and immune cells, and the impact of these interactions on tissue injury responses in disease relevant contexts. These studies demonstrated that platelets are regulators of all aspects of inflammatory responses, including the induction of acute phase responses, innate immune cell activation and trafficking, T helper cell differentiation, and B cell development. Our lab regularly uses advanced mouse models to dissect molecular interactions and vascular inflammatory signaling pathways both in vitro and in vivo, establishing our lab as leaders in understanding how platelets regulate vascular and immune cell homeostatic and inflammatory responses. Our work continues to define many novel implications for platelet immune regulation in vascular and inflammatory disease processes.

Patents

Antigen Presenting Platelets and Methods of Eliciting an Immune Response

Issue date: May 17, 2016

Patent #: 9,340,773

Country: United States

Inventors: Craig N Morrell

Publications

Journal Articles

Thrombocytopenia Independently Leads to Changes in Monocyte Immune Function.

Li C, Ture SK, Nieves-Lopez B, Blick-Nitko SK, Maurya P, Livada AC, Stahl TJ, Kim M, Pietropaoli AP, Morrell CN

Circulation research.. 2024 March 8 Epub 03/08/2024.

Stroke emboli from patients with atrial fibrillation enriched with neutrophil extracellular traps.

Akkipeddi SMK, Rahmani R, Schartz D, Chittaranjan S, Ellens NR, Kohli GS, Bhalla T, Mattingly TK, Welle K, Morrell CN, Bender MT

Research and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis.. 2024 February 8 (2):102347. Epub 02/15/2024.

Markers of platelet activation foR identification of late onset sEpsis in infaNTs: PARENT study protocol.

O'Reilly D, Murphy CA, Moore CM, Ní Áinle F, Gormley IC, Morrell CN, Curley A, Mc Callion N, Maguire P

Pediatric research.. 2023 September 27 Epub 09/27/2023.

Transfusion of Adult, but Not Neonatal, Platelets Promotes Monocyte Trafficking in Neonatal Mice.

Maurya P, Ture SK, Li C, Scheible KM, McGrath KE, Palis J, Morrell CN

Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology.. 2023 March 23 Epub 03/23/2023.

Megakaryocytes in the lung: History and future perspectives.

Livada AC, Pariser DN, Morrell CN

Research and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis.. 2023 February 7 (2):100053. Epub 01/19/2023.

Commentary on "Desialylated Platelets Maintain Immune Quiescence through Regulating Kupffer Cells".

Li C, Morrell CN

Research : a science partner journal.. 2023 6 :0279. Epub 12/12/2023.

Platelet olfactory receptor activation limits platelet reactivity and growth of aortic aneurysms.

Morrell CN, Mix D, Aggarwal A, Bhandari R, Godwin M, Owens Iii AP, Lyden SP, Doyle A, Krauel K, Rondina MT, Mohan A, Lowenstein CJ, Shim S, Stauffer S, Josyula VP, Ture SK, Yule DI, Wagner Iii LE, Ashton JM, Elbadawi A, Cameron SJ

The Journal of clinical investigation.. 2022 May 2132 (9)Epub 1900 01 01.

Platelet-derived ?2m regulates age related monocyte/macrophage functions.

Hilt ZT, Ture SK, Mohan A, Arne A, Morrell CN

Aging.. 2019 December 1811 (24):11955-11974. Epub 12/18/2019.

The Protective Role of Natriuretic Peptide Receptor 2 against High Salt Injury in the Renal Papilla.

Dugbartey GJ, Quinn B, Luo L, Mickelsen DM, Ture SK, Morrell CN, Czyzyk J, Doyley MM, Yan C, Berk BC, Korshunov VA

The American journal of pathology.. 2019 September 189 (9):1721-1731. Epub 06/18/2019.

PAD4 and von Willebrand Factor Link Inflammation and Thrombosis.

Morrell CN, Hilt ZT, Pariser DN, Maurya P

Circulation research.. 2019 August 16125 (5):520-522. Epub 08/15/2019.

Acetylcholine Inhibits Platelet Activation.

Bennett JA, Ture SK, Schmidt RA, Mastrangelo MA, Cameron SJ, Terry LE, Yule DI, Morrell CN, Lowenstein CJ

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics.. 2019 May 369 (2):182-187. Epub 02/14/2019.

The Platelet Napoleon Complex-Small Cells, but Big Immune Regulatory Functions.

Morrell CN, Pariser DN, Hilt ZT, Vega Ocasio

Annual review of immunology.. 2019 April 2637 :125-144. Epub 11/28/2018.

Platelet-derived ?2M regulates monocyte inflammatory responses.

Hilt ZT, Pariser DN, Ture SK, Mohan A, Quijada P, Asante A, Cameron SJ, Sterling JA, Merkel AR, Johanson AL, Jenkins JL, Small EM, McGrath KE, Palis J, Elliott MR, Morrell CN

JCI insight.. 2019 March 74 (5)Epub 03/07/2019.

Platelet CD36 signaling through ERK5 promotes caspase-dependent procoagulant activity and fibrin deposition in vivo.

Yang M, Kholmukhamedov A, Schulte ML, Cooley BC, Scoggins NO, Wood JP, Cameron SJ, Morrell CN, Jobe SM, Silverstein RL

Blood advances.. 2018 November 132 (21):2848-2861. Epub 1900 01 01.

Hypoxia and Ischemia Promote a Maladaptive Platelet Phenotype.

Cameron SJ, Mix DS, Ture SK, Schmidt RA, Mohan A, Pariser D, Stoner MC, Shah P, Chen L, Zhang H, Field DJ, Modjeski KL, Toth S, Morrell CN

Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology.. 2018 July 38 (7):1594-1606. Epub 05/03/2018.

The platelet phenotype in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is different from non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Schmidt RA, Morrell CN, Ling FS, Simlote P, Fernandez G, Rich DQ, Adler D, Gervase J, Cameron SJ

Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine.. 2018 May 195 :1-12. Epub 12/02/2017.

Platelet factor 4 increases bone marrow B cell development and differentiation.

Field DJ, Aggrey-Amable AA, Blick SK, Ture SK, Johanson A, Cameron SJ, Roy S, Morrell CN

Immunologic research.. 2017 October 65 (5):1089-1094. Epub 1900 01 01.

miR-451 limits CD4 T cell proliferative responses to infection in mice.

Chapman LM, Ture SK, Field DJ, Morrell CN

Immunologic research.. 2017 August 65 (4):828-840. Epub 1900 01 01.

Platelet CD36 promotes thrombosis by activating redox sensor ERK5 in hyperlipidemic conditions.

Yang M, Cooley BC, Li W, Chen Y, Vasquez-Vivar J, Scoggins NO, Cameron SJ, Morrell CN, Silverstein RL

Blood.. 2017 May 25129 (21):2917-2927. Epub 03/23/2017.

Associations between ambient wood smoke and other particulate pollutants and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis in cardiac patients.

Croft DP, Cameron SJ, Morrell CN, Lowenstein CJ, Ling F, Zareba W, Hopke PK, Utell MJ, Thurston SW, Thevenet-Morrison K, Evans KA, Chalupa D, Rich DQ

Environmental research.. 2017 April 154 :352-361. Epub 02/04/2017.

Platelets: killers of parasites or patients?

Morrell CN

Blood.. 2017 March 23129 (12):1571-1572. Epub 1900 01 01.

Novel Thrombotic Function of a Human SNP in STXBP5 Revealed by CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing in Mice.

Zhu QM, Ko KA, Ture S, Mastrangelo MA, Chen MH, Johnson AD, O'Donnell CJ, Morrell CN, Miano JM, Lowenstein CJ

Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology.. 2017 February 37 (2):264-270. Epub 12/29/2016.

Role of Axl in T-Lymphocyte Survival in Salt-Dependent Hypertension.

Batchu SN, Hughson A, Wadosky KM, Morrell CN, Fowell DJ, Korshunov VA

Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology.. 2016 August 36 (8):1638-1646. Epub 06/30/2016.

A novel TRPV4-specific agonist inhibits monocyte adhesion and atherosclerosis.

Xu S, Liu B, Yin M, Koroleva M, Mastrangelo M, Ture S, Morrell CN, Zhang DX, Fisher EA, Jin ZG

Oncotarget.. 2016 June 217 (25):37622-37635. Epub 1900 01 01.

Glutamate Receptor Interacting Protein 1 Regulates CD4(+) CTLA-4 Expression and Transplant Rejection.

Modjeski KL, Levy SC, Ture SK, Field DJ, Shi G, Ko K, Zhu Q, Morrell CN

American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.. 2016 May 16 (5):1383-93. Epub 02/25/2016.

Resveratrol preserves the function of human platelets stored for transfusion.

Lannan KL, Refaai MA, Ture SK, Morrell CN, Blumberg N, Phipps RP, Spinelli SL

British journal of haematology.. 2016 March 172 (5):794-806. Epub 12/18/2015.

Novel Antiplatelet Activity of Minocycline Involves Inhibition of MLK3-p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Axis.

Jackson JW, Singh MV, Singh VB, Jones LD, Davidson GA, Ture S, Morrell CN, Schifitto G, Maggirwar SB

PloS one.. 2016 11 (6):e0157115. Epub 06/06/2016.

Glutamate Receptor Interacting Protein 1 Mediates Platelet Adhesion and Thrombus Formation.

Modjeski KL, Ture SK, Field DJ, Cameron SJ, Morrell CN

PloS one.. 2016 11 (9):e0160638. Epub 09/15/2016.

Axl modulates immune activation of smooth muscle cells in vein graft remodeling.

Batchu SN, Xia J, Ko KA, Doyley MM, Abe JI, Morrell CN, Korshunov VA

American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology.. 2015 September 15309 (6):H1048-58. Epub 08/14/2015.

2015 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine symposium.

Spitalnik SL, Triulzi D, Devine DV, Dzik WH, Eder AF, Gernsheimer T, Josephson CD, Kor DJ, Luban NL, Roubinian NH, Mondoro T, Welniak LA, Zou S, Glynn S,

Transfusion.. 2015 September 55 (9):2282-90. Epub 08/10/2015.

Platelet Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinase 5 Is a Redox Switch and Triggers Maladaptive Platelet Responses and Myocardial Infarct Expansion.

Cameron SJ, Ture SK, Mickelsen D, Chakrabarti E, Modjeski KL, McNitt S, Seaberry M, Field DJ, Le NT, Abe JI, Morrell CN

Circulation.. 2015 July 7132 (1):47-58. Epub 05/01/2015.

A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Effect for High Density Lipoprotein.

Cameron SJ, Morrell CN, Bao C, Swaim AF, Rodriguez A, Lowenstein CJ

PloS one.. 2015 10 (12):e0144372. Epub 12/17/2015.

Understanding platelets in malaria infection.

Morrell CN

Current opinion in hematology.. 2014 September 21 (5):445-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

Cyclophilin A is an important mediator of platelet function by regulating integrin ?IIb?3 bidirectional signalling.

Wang L, Soe NN, Sowden M, Xu Y, Modjeski K, Baskaran P, Kim Y, Smolock EM, Morrell C, Berk BC

Thrombosis and haemostasis.. 2014 May 5111 (5):873-82. Epub 01/16/2014.

Emerging roles for platelets as immune and inflammatory cells.

Morrell CN, Aggrey AA, Chapman LM, Modjeski KL

Blood.. 2014 May 1123 (18):2759-67. Epub 02/28/2014.

TGF?-Mediated Downregulation of Thrombopoietin Is Associated With Platelet Decline in Asymptomatic SIV Infection.

Metcalf Pate KA, Lyons CE, Dorsey JL, Queen SE, Adams RJ, Morrell CN, Mankowski JL

Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes : JAIDS.. 2014 April 1565 (5):510-6. Epub 1900 01 01.

Small cells, big effects: the role of platelets in transplant vasculopathy.

Modjeski KL, Morrell CN

Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis.. 2014 January 37 (1):17-23. Epub 1900 01 01.

Platelet factor 4 mediates vascular smooth muscle cell injury responses.

Shi G, Field DJ, Long X, Mickelsen D, Ko KA, Ture S, Korshunov VA, Miano JM, Morrell CN

Blood.. 2013 May 23121 (21):4417-27. Epub 04/08/2013.

Platelet induction of the acute-phase response is protective in murine experimental cerebral malaria.

Aggrey AA, Srivastava K, Ture S, Field DJ, Morrell CN

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2013 May 1190 (9):4685-91. Epub 03/27/2013.

Platelets present antigen in the context of MHC class I.

Chapman LM, Aggrey AA, Field DJ, Srivastava K, Ture S, Yui K, Topham DJ, Baldwin WM, Morrell CN

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2012 July 15189 (2):916-23. Epub 06/15/2012.

Recently recognized platelet agonists.

Morrell CN, Maggirwar SB

Current opinion in hematology.. 2011 September 18 (5):309-14. Epub 1900 01 01.

Platelets as initiators and mediators of inflammation at the vessel wall.

Shi G, Morrell CN

Thrombosis research.. 2011 May 127 (5):387-90. Epub 11/20/2010.

Beta interferon suppresses the development of experimental cerebral malaria.

Morrell CN, Srivastava K, Swaim A, Lee MT, Chen J, Nagineni C, Hooks JJ, Detrick B

Infection and immunity.. 2011 April 79 (4):1750-8. Epub 01/18/2011.

Antiplatelet activity of valproic acid contributes to decreased soluble CD40 ligand production in HIV type 1-infected individuals.

Davidson DC, Hirschman MP, Spinelli SL, Morrell CN, Schifitto G, Phipps RP, Maggirwar SB

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2011 January 1186 (1):584-91. Epub 11/29/2010.

Immunomodulatory mediators in platelet transfusion reactions.

Morrell CN

Hematology. 2011 2011 :470-4. Epub 1900 01 01.

Our expanding view of platelet functions and its clinical implications.

Ombrello C, Block RC, Morrell CN

Journal of cardiovascular translational research.. 2010 October 3 (5):538-46. Epub 07/27/2010.

Platelet factor 4 regulation of monocyte KLF4 in experimental cerebral malaria.

Srivastava K, Field DJ, Aggrey A, Yamakuchi M, Morrell CN

PloS one.. 2010 May 35 (5):e10413. Epub 05/03/2010.

Canonical Wnt signaling negatively regulates platelet function.

Steele BM, Harper MT, Macaulay IC, Morrell CN, Perez-Tamayo A, Foy M, Habas R, Poole AW, Fitzgerald DJ, Maguire PB

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 2009 November 24106 (47):19836-41. Epub 11/09/2009.

Platelet kainate receptor signaling promotes thrombosis by stimulating cyclooxygenase activation.

Sun H, Swaim A, Herrera JE, Becker D, Becker L, Srivastava K, Thompson LE, Shero MR, Perez-Tamayo A, Suktitpat B, Mathias R, Contractor A, Faraday N, Morrell CN

Circulation research.. 2009 September 11105 (6):595-603. Epub 08/13/2009.

Aldosterone activates endothelial exocytosis.

Jeong Y, Chaupin DF, Matsushita K, Yamakuchi M, Cameron SJ, Morrell CN, Lowenstein CJ

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 2009 March 10106 (10):3782-7. Epub 02/17/2009.

Platelet factor 4 mediates inflammation in experimental cerebral malaria.

Srivastava K, Cockburn IA, Swaim A, Thompson LE, Tripathi A, Fletcher CA, Shirk EM, Sun H, Kowalska MA, Fox-Talbot K, Sullivan D, Zavala F, Morrell CN

Cell host & microbe.. 2008 August 144 (2):179-87. Epub 1900 01 01.

Glutamate mediates platelet activation through the AMPA receptor.

Morrell CN, Sun H, Ikeda M, Beique JC, Swaim AM, Mason E, Martin TV, Thompson LE, Gozen O, Ampagoomian D, Sprengel R, Rothstein J, Faraday N, Huganir R, Lowenstein CJ

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 2008 March 17205 (3):575-84. Epub 02/18/2008.

Anti-gene padlocks eliminate Escherichia coli based on their genotype.

Shi C, Parker AR, Hua L, Morrell CN, Lee SC, Bandaru V, Dumler JS, Wu TC, Eshleman JR

The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy.. 2008 February 61 (2):262-72. Epub 12/22/2007.

Alloantibodies to MHC Induce Platelet-Endothelial Cell Interactions

Morrell, CN.; Mason, EA.; Martin, TV.; Swaim, AM.; Ballard, M.; Murata, K.; Baldwin, WM.

Circulation Research. 2008; 102(7): 777-785.

Exocytosis of endothelial cells is regulated by N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor.

Yamakuchi M, Ferlito M, Morrell CN, Matsushita K, Fletcher CA, Cao W, Lowenstein CJ

Methods in molecular biology.. 2008 440 :203-15. Epub 1900 01 01.

Hydrogen peroxide regulation of endothelial exocytosis by inhibition of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor.

Matsushita K, Morrell CN, Mason RJ, Yamakuchi M, Khanday FA, Irani K, Lowenstein CJ

The Journal of cell biology.. 2005 July 4170 (1):73-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

A novel inhibitor of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor decreases leukocyte trafficking and peritonitis.

Morrell CN, Matsushita K, Lowenstein CJ

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics.. 2005 July 314 (1):155-61. Epub 03/18/2005.

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors inhibit endothelial exocytosis and decrease myocardial infarct size.

Yamakuchi M, Greer JJ, Cameron SJ, Matsushita K, Morrell CN, Talbot-Fox K, Baldwin WM, Lefer DJ, Lowenstein CJ

Circulation research.. 2005 June 1096 (11):1185-92. Epub 05/19/2005.

A novel class of fusion polypeptides inhibits exocytosis.

Matsushita K, Morrell CN, Lowenstein CJ

Molecular pharmacology.. 2005 April 67 (4):1137-44. Epub 12/17/2004.

Regulation of platelet granule exocytosis by S-nitrosylation.

Morrell CN, Matsushita K, Chiles K, Scharpf RB, Yamakuchi M, Mason RJ, Bergmeier W, Mankowski JL, Baldwin WM, Faraday N, Lowenstein CJ

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 2005 March 8102 (10):3782-7. Epub 02/28/2005.

Vascular endothelial growth factor regulation of Weibel-Palade-body exocytosis.

Matsushita K, Yamakuchi M, Morrell CN, Ozaki M, O'Rourke B, Irani K, Lowenstein CJ

Blood.. 2005 January 1105 (1):207-14. Epub 09/02/2004.

Ceramide triggers Weibel-Palade body exocytosis.

Bhatia R, Matsushita K, Yamakuchi M, Morrell CN, Cao W, Lowenstein CJ

Circulation research.. 2004 August 695 (3):319-24. Epub 06/24/2004.

Sphingosine 1-phosphate activates Weibel-Palade body exocytosis.

Matsushita K, Morrell CN, Lowenstein CJ

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 2004 August 3101 (31):11483-7. Epub 07/23/2004.

Nitric oxide regulates exocytosis by S-nitrosylation of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor.

Matsushita K, Morrell CN, Cambien B, Yang SX, Yamakuchi M, Bao C, Hara MR, Quick RA, Cao W, O'Rourke B, Lowenstein JM, Pevsner J, Wagner DD, Lowenstein CJ

Cell.. 2003 October 17115 (2):139-50. Epub 1900 01 01.

Heterozygous disruption of Hic1 predisposes mice to a gender-dependent spectrum of malignant tumors.

Chen WY, Zeng X, Carter MG, Morrell CN, Chiu Yen RW, Esteller M, Watkins DN, Herman JG, Mankowski JL, Baylin SB

Nature genetics.. 2003 February 33 (2):197-202. Epub 01/21/2003.

A carcinoid tumor in the gallbladder of a dog.

Morrell CN, Volk MV, Mankowski JL

Veterinary pathology.. 2002 November 39 (6):756-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

Biologically erodable microspheres as potential oral drug delivery systems.

Mathiowitz E, Jacob JS, Jong YS, Carino GP, Chickering DE, Chaturvedi P, Santos CA, Vijayaraghavan K, Montgomery S, Bassett M, Morrell C

Nature.. 1997 March 27386 (6623):410-4. Epub 1900 01 01.

Bioadhesive Microspheres: III. An In Vivo Transit and Bioavailability Study of Drug-Loaded Alginate and Poly(Fumaric-co-Sebacic Anhydride) Microspheres

Chickering, D.E.; Jacob, J.S.; Desai, M.; Harrison, W.P.; Morrell, C.N.; Chatuverdi, P.; Mathiowitz, E.

Journal of Controlled Release. 1997; 48: 35-46.