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Gowrishankar Muthukrishnan, Ph.D.

Gowrishankar Muthukrishnan, Ph.D.

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About Me

Professional Background

Gowrishankar Muthukrishnan earned his Ph.D. in Biomedical Sciences. He is a microbial immunologist with expertise in host-microbe interactions, bacterial pathogenesis, and immunobiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections. His graduate work aimed at understanding the S. aureus nasal carriage dynamic...
Gowrishankar Muthukrishnan earned his Ph.D. in Biomedical Sciences. He is a microbial immunologist with expertise in host-microbe interactions, bacterial pathogenesis, and immunobiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections. His graduate work aimed at understanding the S. aureus nasal carriage dynamics, in addition to identifying important host and microbial determinants that influence S. aureus nasal colonization in humans. His postdoctoral studies at the University of Rochester Medical Center involved numerous basic research projects related to human immune mechanisms and the development of supporting immunological methods for viral and bacterial vaccine research. He also worked on assessing functional humoral and cell-mediated responses in patients with S. aureus osteomyelitis, diabetic foot ulcer infections, and spine infections. As a faculty member within the Center for Musculoskeletal Research (CMSR), University of Rochester Medical Center, his research group is focused on understanding host-pathogen interactions and the osteoimmunology of orthopaedic infections. His research group is also developing novel small animal models (humanized mice) to study bone infections.

Faculty Appointments

Assistant Professor - Department of Orthopaedics, Center for Musculoskeletal Research (SMD)

Assistant Professor - Department of Microbiology and Immunology (SMD) - Joint

Credentials

Post-doctoral Training & Residency

Center for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Rochester Medical Center 2017 - 2019

Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center 2015 - 2017

Education

PhD | University of Central Florida College of Medicine. Biomedical Sciences. 2014

MS | University of Central Florida. Molecular Biology and Microbiology. 2010

Masters in Engineering | Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India. Biotechnology. 2007

Awards

AO Research Institute Fellowship (Davos, Switzerland). 2019 - 2021

Great Lakes International Imaging and Flow Cytometry Association (GLIIFCA 2016) Travel Award. 2016

Great Lakes International Imaging and Flow Cytometry Association (GLIIFCA 2016) Best Poster Award. 2016

Rudy Wodzinski Memorial Scholarship. 2011 - 2012

Research

Publications

Journal Articles

The 2023 Orthopaedic Research Society's International Consensus Meeting on musculoskeletal infection: Summary from the host immunity section.

Schwarz EM, Archer NK, Atkins GJ, Bentley KLM, Botros M, Cassat JE, Chisari E, Coraça-Huber DC, Daiss JL, Gill SR, Goodman SB, Harro J, Hernandez CJ, Ivashkiv LB, Kates SL, Marques CNH, Masters EA, Muthukrishnan G, Owen JR, Raafat D, Saito M, Veis DJ, Xie C

Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society.. 2023 December 16 Epub 12/16/2023.

Longitudinal Intravital Imaging of the Bone Marrow (LIMB) for Analysis of the Race for the Surface in a Murine Osteomyelitis Model.

Xie C, Ren Y, Weeks J, Rainbolt J, Mark Kenney H, Xue T, Allen F, Shu Y, Tay AJH, Lekkala S, Yeh SA, Muthukrishnan G, Gill AL, Gill SR, Kim M, Kates SL, Schwarz EM

Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society.. 2023 October 9 Epub 10/09/2023.

Staphylococcus aureus isolates from children with clinically differentiated osteomyelitis exhibit distinct transcriptomic signatures.

Hachem AA, Filkins LM, Kidane YH, Raj P, Tareen NG, Arana CA, Muthukrishnan G, Copley LA

PloS one.. 2023 18 (8):e0288758. Epub 08/10/2023.

Multi-omics analysis identifies IgG2b class-switching with ALCAM-CD6 co-stimulation in joint-draining lymph nodes during advanced inflammatory-erosive arthritis.

Kenney HM, Rangel-Moreno J, Peng Y, Chen KL, Bruno J, Embong A, Pritchett E, Fox JI, Becerril-Villanueva E, Gamboa-Domínguez A, Quataert S, Muthukrishnan G, Wood RW, Korman BD, Anolik JH, Xing L, Ritchlin CT, Schwarz EM, Wu CL

Frontiers in immunology.. 2023 14 :1237498. Epub 08/25/2023.

Systemic IL-27 administration prevents abscess formation and osteolysis via local neutrophil recruitment and activation.

Morita Y, Saito M, Rangel-Moreno J, Franchini AM, Owen JR, Martinez JC, Daiss JL, de Mesy Bentley KL, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Muthukrishnan G

Bone research.. 2022 August 2610 (1):56. Epub 08/26/2022.

Skeletal infections: microbial pathogenesis, immunity and clinical management.

Masters EA, Ricciardi BF, Bentley KLM, Moriarty TF, Schwarz EM, Muthukrishnan G

Nature reviews. Microbiology.. 2022 February 15 Epub 02/15/2022.

Low albumin level is more strongly associated with adverse outcomes and Staphylococcus aureus infection than hemoglobin A1C or smoking tobacco.

Campbell MP, Mott MD, Owen JR, Reznicek JE, Beck CA, Muthukrishnan G, Golladay GJ, Kates SL

Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society.. 2022 February 4 Epub 02/04/2022.

Evidence of Neutralizing and Non-Neutralizing Anti-Glucosaminidase Antibodies in Patients With Osteomyelitis and Their Association With Clinical Outcome Following Surgery in a Clinical Pilot.

Sherchand SP, Adhikari RP, Muthukrishnan G, Kanipakala T, Owen JR, Xie C, Aman MJ, Proctor RA, Schwarz EM, Kates SL

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology.. 2022 12 :876898. Epub 07/18/2022.

Probiotic induced synthesis of microbiota polyamine as a nutraceutical for metabolic syndrome and obesity-related type 2 diabetes.

Bui TI, Britt EA, Muthukrishnan G, Gill SR

Frontiers in endocrinology.. 2022 13 :1094258. Epub 01/13/2023.

Bone infection: a clinical priority for clinicians, scientists and educators.

Moriarty TF, Muthukrishnan G, Daiss JL, Xie C, Nishitani K, Morita Y, Awad H, de Mesy Bentley KL, Masters E, Bui T, Yan M, Owen J, Mooney B, Gill S, Puetzler J, Wenke JC, Morgenstern M, Metsemakers WJ, Noll C, Joeris A, Richards RG, Schwarz EM, Kates SL

European cells & materials.. 2021 October 1841 :312-333. Epub 10/18/2021.

StaphAIR: A Label-Free Antigen Microarray Approach to Detecting Anti- Antibody Responses in Orthopedic Infections.

Klose AM, Daiss JL, Ho L, Beck CA, Striemer CC, Muthukrishnan G, Miller BL

Analytical chemistry.. 2021 October 1 Epub 10/01/2021.

IgG4-specific responses in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bone infections are not predictive of postoperative complications.

Owen JR, Campbell MP, Mott MD, Beck CA, Xie C, Muthukrishnan G, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM, Kates SL

European cells & materials.. 2021 September 2241 :156-165. Epub 09/22/2021.

The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen negatively impacts new bone formation and antibiotic efficacy in a rat model of orthopaedic-device-related infection.

Burch MA, Keshishian A, Wittmann C, Nehrbass D, Styger U, Muthukrishnan G, Arens D, Stadelmann VA, Richards RG, Moriarty TF, Thompson K

European cells & materials.. 2021 June 1741 :739-755. Epub 06/17/2021.

Development of Bisphosphonate-Conjugated Antibiotics to Overcome Pharmacodynamic Limitations of Local Therapy: Initial Results with Carbamate Linked Sitafloxacin and Tedizolid.

Adjei-Sowah E, Peng Y, Weeks J, Jonason JH, de Mesy Bentley KL, Masters E, Morita Y, Muthukrishnan G, Cherian P, Hu XE, McKenna CE, Ebetino FH, Sun S, Schwarz EM, Xie C

Antibiotics.. 2021 June 1710 (6)Epub 06/17/2021.

Increased myocellular lipid and IGFBP-3 expression in a pre-clinical model of pancreatic cancer-related skeletal muscle wasting.

Cole CL, Bachman JF, Ye J, Murphy J, Gerber SA, Beck CA, Boyce BF, Muthukrishnan G, Chakkalakal JV, Schwarz EM, Linehan D

Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle.. 2021 May 7 Epub 05/07/2021.

Humanized Mice Exhibit Exacerbated Abscess Formation and Osteolysis During the Establishment of Implant-Associated Osteomyelitis.

Muthukrishnan G, Wallimann A, Rangel-Moreno J, Bentley KLM, Hildebrand M, Mys K, Kenney HM, Sumrall ET, Daiss JL, Zeiter S, Richards RG, Schwarz EM, Moriarty TF

Frontiers in immunology.. 2021 12 :651515. Epub 03/18/2021.

Interleukin-27 and Its Diverse Effects on Bacterial Infections.

Morita Y, Masters EA, Schwarz EM, Muthukrishnan G

Frontiers in immunology.. 2021 12 :678515. Epub 05/17/2021.

Cell Wall Biosynthesis Modulates Bone Invasion and Osteomyelitis Pathogenesis.

Masters EA, Muthukrishnan G, Ho L, Gill AL, de Mesy Bentley KL, Galloway CA, McGrath JL, Awad HA, Gill SR, Schwarz EM

Frontiers in microbiology.. 2021 12 :723498. Epub 08/16/2021.

Emerging Electron Microscopy and 3D Methodologies to Interrogate Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis in Murine Models.

de Mesy Bentley KL, Galloway CA, Muthukrishnan G, Echternacht SR, Masters EA, Zeiter S, Schwarz EM, Leckenby JI

Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society.. 2020 December 30 Epub 12/30/2020.

Distinct Expression Trend of Signature Antigens of Staphylococcus Aureus Osteomyelitis Correlated with Clinical Outcomes.

Fu W, He W, Ren Y, Li Z, Liu J, Liu Y, Xie Z, Xu J, Bi Q, Kong M, Lee CC, Daiss JL, Muthukrishnan G, Owen JR, Kates SL, Peng J, Xie C

Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society.. 2020 December 18 Epub 12/18/2020.

Serum antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus can prognose treatment success in patients with bone infections.

Muthukrishnan G, Beck CA, Owen JR, Xie C, Kates SL, Daiss JL

Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society.. 2020 December 15 Epub 12/15/2020.

Lack of Humoral Immunity Against Glucosaminidase Is Associated with Postoperative Complications in Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis.

Kates SL, Owen JR, Beck CA, Xie C, Muthukrishnan G, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM

The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume.. 2020 August 27 Epub 08/27/2020.

A Bioinformatic Approach to Utilize a Patient's Antibody-Secreting Cells against to Detect Challenging Musculoskeletal Infections.

Muthukrishnan G, Soin S, Beck CA, Grier A, Brodell JD, Lee CC, Ackert-Bicknell CL, Lee FE, Schwarz EM, Daiss JL

ImmunoHorizons.. 2020 June 224 (6):339-351. Epub 06/22/2020.

Current Concepts of Osteomyelitis: From Pathologic Mechanisms to Advanced Research Methods.

Hofstee MI, Muthukrishnan G, Atkins GJ, Riool M, Thompson K, Morgenstern M, Stoddart MJ, Richards RG, Zaat SAJ, Moriarty TF

The American journal of pathology.. 2020 June 190 (6):1151-1163. Epub 03/16/2020.

Deriving a dose and regimen for anti-glucosaminidase antibody passive-immunisation for patients with Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis.

Lee CC, Southgate RD, Jiao C, Gersz E, Owen JR, Kates SL, Beck CA, Xie C, Daiss JL, Post V, Moriarty TF, Zeiter S, Schwarz EM, Muthukrishnan G

European cells & materials.. 2020 January 3139 :96-107. Epub 01/31/2020.

New Developments and Future Challenges in Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Prosthetic Joint Infection.

Ricciardi BF, Muthukrishnan G, Masters EA, Kaplan N, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM

Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society.. 2020 January 22 Epub 01/22/2020.

Women who received varicella vaccine versus natural infection have different long-term T cell immunity but similar antibody levels.

Tourtelot E, Quataert S, Glantz JC, Perlis L, Muthukrishnan G, Mosmann T

Vaccine.. 2020 January 17 Epub 01/17/2020.

Mechanisms of Immune Evasion and Bone Tissue Colonization That Make Staphylococcus aureus the Primary Pathogen in Osteomyelitis.

Muthukrishnan G, Masters EA, Daiss JL, Schwarz EM

Current osteoporosis reports.. 2019 November 13 Epub 11/13/2019.

Evolving concepts in bone infection: redefining "biofilm", "acute vs. chronic osteomyelitis", "the immune proteome" and "local antibiotic therapy"

Masters EA, Trombetta R, Bentley KL, Boyce BF, Gill AL, Gill SR, Nishitani K, Ishikawa M, Morita Y, Ito H, Bello-Irizarry SN, Ninomiya M, Brodell J, Lee CC, Hao S, Oh I, Xie C, Awad HA, Daiss JL, Owen JR, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, and Muthukrishnan G.

Nature Bone Research. 2019; 7(20).

Evolving concepts in bone infection: redefining "biofilm", "acute vs. chronic osteomyelitis", "the immune proteome" and "local antibiotic therapy".

Masters EA, Trombetta RP, de Mesy Bentley KL, Boyce BF, Gill AL, Gill SR, Nishitani K, Ishikawa M, Morita Y, Ito H, Bello-Irizarry SN, Ninomiya M, Brodell JD, Lee CC, Hao SP, Oh I, Xie C, Awad HA, Daiss JL, Owen JR, Kates SL, Schwarz EM, Muthukrishnan G

Bone research.. 2019 7 :20. Epub 07/15/2019.

Tracking Anti- Antibodies Produced and during Foot Salvage Therapy for Diabetic Foot Infections Reveals Prognostic Insights and Evidence of Diversified Humoral Immunity.

Oh I, Muthukrishnan G, Ninomiya MJ, Brodell JD, Smith BL, Lee CC, Gill SR, Beck CA, Schwarz EM, Daiss JL

Infection and immunity.. 2018 December 86 (12)Epub 11/20/2018.

Staphylococcus aureus Evasion of Host Immunity in the Setting of Prosthetic Joint Infection: Biofilm and Beyond.

Ricciardi BF, Muthukrishnan G, Masters E, Ninomiya M, Lee CC, Schwarz EM

Current reviews in musculoskeletal medicine.. 2018 July 9 Epub 07/09/2018.

Genetic assessment of Staphylococcus aureus in an underreported locality: Ambulatory care clinic.

Lawrance MF, Muthukrishnan G, Deichen J, Deichen M, Schaus J, Cole AM, Parkinson CL

Journal of infection and public health.. 2018 11 (5):648-656. Epub 04/30/2018.

Host innate inflammatory factors and staphylococcal protein A influence the duration of human Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage.

Cole AM, Deichen MG, Wood MP, Eade CR, Beavis A, Chong C, Muthukrishnan G, Cole AL

Mucosal immunology.. 2016 November 9 (6):1537-1548. Epub 02/03/2016.

Longitudinal genetic analyses of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage dynamics in a diverse population.

Muthukrishnan G, Lamers RP, Ellis A, Paramanandam V, Persaud AB, Tafur S, Parkinson CL, Cole AM

BMC infectious diseases.. 2013 May 1613 :221. Epub 05/16/2013.

Phylogenetic relationships among Staphylococcus species and refinement of cluster groups based on multilocus data.

Lamers RP, Muthukrishnan G, Castoe TA, Tafur S, Cole AM, Parkinson CL

BMC evolutionary biology. 2012 September 612 :171. Epub 09/06/2012.

Exoproteome of Staphylococcus aureus reveals putative determinants of nasal carriage.

Muthukrishnan G, Quinn GA, Lamers RP, Diaz C, Cole AL, Chen S, Cole AM

Journal of proteome research.. 2011 April 110 (4):2064-78. Epub 03/07/2011.

Evolutionary analyses of Staphylococcus aureus identify genetic relationships between nasal carriage and clinical isolates.

Lamers RP, Stinnett JW, Muthukrishnan G, Parkinson CL, Cole AM

PloS one.. 2011 January 216 (1):e16426. Epub 01/21/2011.

Plasmodium falciparum: genetic polymorphism in apical membrane antigen-1 gene from Indian isolates.

Rajesh V, Singamsetti VK, Vidya S, Gowrishankar M, Elamaran M, Tripathi J, Radhika NB, Kochar D, Ranjan A, Roy SK, Das A

Experimental parasitology.. 2008 May 119 (1):144-51. Epub 02/09/2008.

Plasmodium vivax: genetic diversity of the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) in isolates from India.

Rajesh V, Elamaran M, Vidya S, Gowrishankar M, Kochar D, Das A

Experimental parasitology.. 2007 July 116 (3):252-6. Epub 01/23/2007.