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Andrea Sant, Ph.D.

Andrea Sant, Ph.D.

Contact

Research Lab

About Me

Faculty Appointments

Professor - Department of Microbiology and Immunology (SMD)

Credentials

Education

PhD | Washington University. Immunology. 1985

BA | SUNY College at Oswego. Chemistry and Biology. 1977

Awards

AAI Awards Committee. 2013

Section Editor. 2013

Ad Hoc reviewer. 2013

Ad Hoc reviewer. 2012

Ad Hoc reviewer. 2012

Chair. 2005 - 2007

Ad Hoc reviewer. 2003 - 2005

Elected to Faculty of 1000 in Immunology. 2002

Ad Hoc reviewer. 2001

Breast Cancer Study Section. 2000

Study Section. 1999

Ad Hoc reviewer. 1999

Breast Cancer Study Section. 1998

Study Section. 1997

Chair. 1996 - 1997

Study Section Co-Chair. 1996 - 1999

Ad Hoc reviewer. 1994 - 1996

Ad Hoc reviewer. 1994 - 1995

Zeisler Junior Faculty Scholars Award. 1989 - 1990

Research

Our research seeks to understand the elements in vivo that dictate the selective specificities and effector functions of CD4 T cells during protective immune responses to pathogenic organisms, with a particular commitment overcoming the challenges associated with protective immunity to influenza vir...
Our research seeks to understand the elements in vivo that dictate the selective specificities and effector functions of CD4 T cells during protective immune responses to pathogenic organisms, with a particular commitment overcoming the challenges associated with protective immunity to influenza virus. We are heavily focused on the role that CD4 T cells play in immunity to influenza virus because of the multiplicity of contributions that they make in protective immunity to influenza, including help for high affinity antibody production, enhancement of CD8 T cell expansion, function and memory, acceleration of the early innate response to infection and direct tissue localized cytotoxicity.

The influenza-specific CD4 T cell repertoire in humans is established through periodic exposures to infection and vaccination that each lead to distinct signatures of CD4 T cell memory. Our data suggests that the CD4 T cell repertoire specific for influenza viruses are highly variable in abundance, specificity and functionality. It is our hypothesis that deficits in particular subsets of CD4 T cells recruited into the response are associated with less robust or effective antibody responses and diminished protection mediated by the cellular components of the adaptive immune response. Accordingly, our laboratory seeks to develop and analyze improved strategies for human vaccination and to the development of molecular strategies to both foster protective immunity in the host and to dissect both predictors and correlates of protective immunity to vaccines and virus infections.

Recently accepted papers

DiPiazza, A.T, Fan, S, Rattan, Chaves, F., Newmann, G., Kawaoka, Y. and Sant, A.J. 2019. A novel vaccine strategy to overcome poor immunogenicity of avian influenza vaccines through mobilization of memory CD4 T cells established by seasonal influenza. J. Immunol. In press

Richards, K. A, Shannon, I, Treanor, J.J. Yang, H, Nayak, J. Sant, A.J. 2019. Evidence that blunted CD4 T cell responses underlie deficient antibody responses to influenza vaccines in repeatedly vaccinated human subjects. Journal of Infectious Diseases, In press

Rattan, A. Richards, K.A., Knowlden, Z.A. and Sant, A.J. 2019. Protein vaccination directed the CD4 T cell response towards shared protective epitopes that can be recalled after influenza infection. Journal of Virology, In press

Publications

Journal Articles

CD4 T cell epitope abundance in ferritin core potentiates responses to hemagglutinin nanoparticle vaccines.

Nelson SA, Richards KA, Glover MA, Chaves FA, Crank MC, Graham BS, Kanekiyo M, Sant AJ

NPJ vaccines.. 2022 October 267 (1):124. Epub 10/26/2022.

Editorial overview: The life and times of peptide-MHC.

Sant AJ, Stern LJ

Current opinion in immunology.. 2022 September 2878 :102244. Epub 09/28/2022.

Learning from our differences.

Sant AJ, Wilson PC

Nature immunology.. 2022 September 27 Epub 09/27/2022.

The negative effect of pre-existing immunity on influenza vaccine responses transcends the impact of vaccine formulation type and vaccination history.

Moritzky SA, Richards KA, Glover MA, Krammer F, Chaves FA, Topham DJ, Branche A, Nayak JL, Sant AJ

The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2022 February 24 Epub 02/24/2022.

Development of a Mouse Model to Explore CD4 T Cell Specificity, Phenotype, and Recruitment to the Lung after Influenza B Infection.

Rattan A, White CL, Nelson S, Eismann M, Padilla-Quirarte H, Glover MA, Dileepan T, Marathe BM, Govorkova EA, Webby RJ, Richards KA, Sant AJ

Pathogens.. 2022 February 1511 (2)Epub 02/15/2022.

Circulating CD4 T cells elicited by endemic coronaviruses display vast disparities in abundance and functional potential linked to both antigen specificity and age.

Richards KA, Glover M, Crawford JC, Thomas P, White C, Sant AJ

The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2021 February 8 Epub 02/08/2021.

Potentiating Lung Mucosal Immunity Through Intranasal Vaccination.

Nelson SA, Sant AJ

Frontiers in immunology.. 2021 12 :808527. Epub 12/14/2021.

Recombinant HA-based vaccine outperforms split and subunit vaccines in elicitation of influenza-specific CD4 T cells and CD4 T cell-dependent antibody responses in humans.

Richards KA, Moritzky S, Shannon I, Fitzgerald T, Yang H, Branche A, Topham DJ, Treanor JJ, Nayak J, Sant AJ

NPJ vaccines.. 2020 August 265 (1):77. Epub 08/26/2020.

Heterologous viral protein interactions within licensed seasonal influenza virus vaccines.

Koroleva M, Batarse F, Moritzky S, Henry C, Chaves F, Wilson P, Krammer F, Richards K, Sant AJ

NPJ vaccines.. 2020 January 105 (1):3. Epub 01/10/2020.

Heterologous viral protein interactions within licensed seasonal influenza virus vaccines.

Koroleva M, Batarse F, Moritzky S, Henry C, Chaves F, Wilson P, Krammer F, Richards K, Sant AJ

NPJ vaccines.. 2020 5 :3. Epub 01/10/2020.

Recombinant HA-based vaccine outperforms split and subunit vaccines in elicitation of influenza-specific CD4 T cells and CD4 T cell-dependent antibody responses in humans.

Richards KA, Moritzky S, Shannon I, Fitzgerald T, Yang H, Branche A, Topham DJ, Treanor JJ, Nayak J, Sant AJ

NPJ vaccines.. 2020 5 :77. Epub 08/26/2020.

Peptide Epitope Hot Spots of CD4 T Cell Recognition Within Influenza Hemagglutinin During the Primary Response to Infection.

Knowlden ZAG, Richards KA, Moritzky SA, Sant AJ

Pathogens.. 2019 November 58 (4)Epub 11/05/2019.

A Novel Vaccine Strategy to Overcome Poor Immunogenicity of Avian Influenza Vaccines through Mobilization of Memory CD4 T Cells Established by Seasonal Influenza.

DiPiazza AT, Fan S, Rattan A, DeDiego ML, Chaves F, Neumann G, Kawaoka Y, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2019 September 15203 (6):1502-1508. Epub 08/09/2019.

Evidence that blunted CD4 T cells responses underlie deficient protective antibody responses to influenza vaccines in repeatedly vaccinated human subjects.

Richards KA, Shannon I, Treanor JJ, Yang H, Nayak JL, Sant AJ

The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2019 August 26 Epub 08/26/2019.

Protein vaccination directs the CD4+ T cell response towards shared protective epitopes that can be recalled after influenza infection.

Rattan A, Richards KA, Knowlden ZAG, Sant AJ

Journal of virology.. 2019 July 24 Epub 07/24/2019.

Editorial: Orchestration of an Immune Response to Respiratory Pathogens.

Varga SM, Sant AJ

Frontiers in immunology.. 2019 10 :690. Epub 04/09/2019.

Imprinting and Editing of the Human CD4 T Cell Response to Influenza Virus.

Nelson SA, Sant AJ

Frontiers in immunology.. 2019 10 :932. Epub 05/07/2019.

Overarching Immunodominance Patterns and Substantial Diversity in Specificity and Functionality in the Circulating Human Influenza A and B Virus-Specific CD4+ T-Cell Repertoire.

Richards KA, Treanor JJ, Nayak JL, Sant AJ

The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2018 August 24218 (7):1169-1174. Epub 1900 01 01.

Distinct and complementary roles of CD4 T cells in protective immunity to influenza virus.

Sant AJ, Richards KA, Nayak J

Current opinion in immunology.. 2018 August 53 :13-21. Epub 04/02/2018.

CD4 T Cell Epitope Specificity and Cytokine Potential Are Preserved as Cells Transition from the Lung Vasculature to Lung Tissue following Influenza Virus Infection.

DiPiazza A, Laniewski N, Rattan A, Topham DJ, Miller J, Sant AJ

Journal of virology.. 2018 July 192 (13)Epub 06/13/2018.

CD4 T cells in protection from influenza virus: Viral antigen specificity and functional potential.

Sant AJ, DiPiazza AT, Nayak JL, Rattan A, Richards KA

Immunological reviews.. 2018 July 284 (1):91-105. Epub 1900 01 01.

Analyses of Cellular Immune Responses in Ferrets Following Influenza Virus Infection.

DiPiazza AT, Richards KA, Liu WC, Albrecht RA, Sant AJ

Methods in molecular biology.. 2018 1836 :513-530. Epub 1900 01 01.

Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Venus reporter virus reveals broad diversity of MHC class II-positive antigen-bearing cells following infection in vivo.

DiPiazza A, Nogales A, Poulton N, Wilson PC, Martínez-Sobrido L, Sant AJ

Scientific reports.. 2017 September 77 (1):10857. Epub 09/07/2017.

Avian and Human Seasonal Influenza Hemagglutinin Proteins Elicit CD4 T Cell Responses That Are Comparable in Epitope Abundance and Diversity.

DiPiazza A, Richards K, Poulton N, Sant AJ

Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI.. 2017 March 24 (3)Epub 03/06/2017.

Flow Cytometric and Cytokine ELISpot Approaches To Characterize the Cell-Mediated Immune Response in Ferrets following Influenza Virus Infection.

DiPiazza A, Richards K, Batarse F, Lockard L, Zeng H, García-Sastre A, Albrecht RA, Sant AJ

Journal of virology.. 2016 September 190 (17):7991-8004. Epub 08/12/2016.

The Role of CD4 T Cell Memory in Generating Protective Immunity to Novel and Potentially Pandemic Strains of Influenza.

DiPiazza A, Richards KA, Knowlden ZA, Nayak JL, Sant AJ

Frontiers in immunology.. 2016 7 :10. Epub 01/25/2016.

Abundance and specificity of influenza reactive circulating memory follicular helper and non-follicular helper CD4 T cells in healthy adults.

Leddon SA, Richards KA, Treanor JJ, Sant AJ

Immunology.. 2015 September 146 (1):157-62. Epub 07/14/2015.

Seasonal Influenza Can Poise Hosts for CD4 T-Cell Immunity to H7N9 Avian Influenza.

Richards KA, Nayak J, Chaves FA, DiPiazza A, Knowlden ZA, Alam S, Treanor JJ, Sant AJ

The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2015 July 1212 (1):86-94. Epub 12/09/2014.

Effect of influenza A(H5N1) vaccine prepandemic priming on CD4+ T-cell responses.

Nayak JL, Richards KA, Yang H, Treanor JJ, Sant AJ

The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2015 May 1211 (9):1408-17. Epub 11/06/2014.

CD4 T cell help is limiting and selective during the primary B cell response to influenza virus infection.

Alam S, Knowlden ZA, Sangster MY, Sant AJ

Journal of virology.. 2014 January 88 (1):314-24. Epub 10/23/2013.

The use of nanolipoprotein particles to enhance the immunostimulatory properties of innate immune agonists against lethal influenza challenge.

Weilhammer DR, Blanchette CD, Fischer NO, Alam S, Loots GG, Corzett M, Thomas C, Lychak C, Dunkle AD, Ruitenberg JJ, Ghanekar SA, Sant AJ, Rasley A

Biomaterials.. 2013 December 34 (38):10305-18. Epub 09/27/2013.

The control of the specificity of CD4 T cell responses: thresholds, breakpoints, and ceilings.

Sant AJ, Chaves FA, Leddon SA, Tung J

Frontiers in immunology.. 2013 October 234 :340. Epub 10/23/2013.

Cutting edge: Heterosubtypic influenza infection antagonizes elicitation of immunological reactivity to hemagglutinin.

Nayak JL, Alam S, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2013 August 1191 (3):1001-5. Epub 06/21/2013.

Orchestration of CD4 T cell epitope preferences after multipeptide immunization.

Tung J, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2013 July 15191 (2):764-72. Epub 06/14/2013.

CD4+ T-cell expansion predicts neutralizing antibody responses to monovalent, inactivated 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus subtype H1N1 vaccine.

Nayak JL, Fitzgerald TF, Richards KA, Yang H, Treanor JJ, Sant AJ

The Journal of infectious diseases.. 2013 January 15207 (2):297-305. Epub 11/12/2012.

Revealing the role of CD4(+) T cells in viral immunity.

Sant AJ, McMichael A

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 2012 July 30209 (8):1391-5. Epub 1900 01 01.

The utility and limitations of current Web-available algorithms to predict peptides recognized by CD4 T cells in response to pathogen infection.

Chaves FA, Lee AH, Nayak JL, Richards KA, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2012 May 1188 (9):4235-48. Epub 03/30/2012.

Long-term persistence of CD4(+) but rapid disappearance of CD8(+) T cells expressing an MHC class I-restricted TCR of nanomolar affinity.

Engels B, Chervin AS, Sant AJ, Kranz DM, Schreiber H

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy.. 2012 March 20 (3):652-60. Epub 01/10/2012.

Host differences in influenza-specific CD4 T cell and B cell responses are modulated by viral strain and route of immunization.

Sundararajan A, Huan L, Richards KA, Marcelin G, Alam S, Joo H, Yang H, Webby RJ, Topham DJ, Sant AJ, Sangster MY

PloS one.. 2012 7 (3):e34377. Epub 03/23/2012.

The memory phase of the CD4 T-cell response to influenza virus infection maintains its diverse antigen specificity.

Richards KA, Chaves FA, Sant AJ

Immunology.. 2011 June 133 (2):246-56. Epub 03/29/2011.

T cell immunology for the clinician.

Nayak JL, Sant AJ

The Pediatric infectious disease journal.. 2011 March 30 (3):248-50. Epub 1900 01 01.

Cutting edge: CD4 T cells generated from encounter with seasonal influenza viruses and vaccines have broad protein specificity and can directly recognize naturally generated epitopes derived from the live pandemic H1N1 virus.

Richards KA, Topham D, Chaves FA, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2010 November 1185 (9):4998-5002. Epub 10/01/2010.

Generation of MHC class II-peptide ligands for CD4 T-cell allorecognition of MHC class II molecules.

Leddon SA, Sant AJ

Current opinion in organ transplantation.. 2010 August 15 (4):505-11. Epub 1900 01 01.

Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 deficiency delays viral clearance in the lung and is associated with diminished influenza-induced cytopathic effect in infected cells.

Desmet EA, Hollenbaugh JA, Sime PJ, Wright TW, Topham DJ, Sant AJ, Takimoto T, Dewhurst S, Maggirwar SB

Virology.. 2010 May 10400 (2):224-32. Epub 02/25/2010.

Understanding the focused CD4 T cell response to antigen and pathogenic organisms.

Weaver JM, Sant AJ

Immunologic research.. 2009 December 45 (2-3):123-43. Epub 02/07/2009.

Abortive activation of CD4 T cell responses during competitive priming in vivo.

Weaver JM, Chaves FA, Sant AJ

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 2009 May 26106 (21):8647-52. Epub 05/07/2009.

Immunodominance of CD4 T cells to foreign antigens is peptide intrinsic and independent of molecular context: implications for vaccine design.

Weaver JM, Lazarski CA, Richards KA, Chaves FA, Jenks SA, Menges PR, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2008 September 1181 (5):3039-48. Epub 1900 01 01.

MR1 uses an endocytic pathway to activate mucosal-associated invariant T cells.

Huang S, Gilfillan S, Kim S, Thompson B, Wang X, Sant AJ, Fremont DH, Lantz O, Hansen TH

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 2008 May 12205 (5):1201-11. Epub 04/28/2008.

CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell repertoire formation shaped by differential presentation of peptides from a self-antigen.

Larkin J, Rankin AL, Picca CC, Riley MP, Jenks SA, Sant AJ, Caton AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2008 February 15180 (4):2149-57. Epub 1900 01 01.

An MHC class II restriction bias in CD4 T cell responses toward I-A is altered to I-E in DM-deficient mice.

Menges PR, Jenks SA, Bikoff EK, Friedmann DR, Knowlden ZA, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2008 February 1180 (3):1619-33. Epub 1900 01 01.

Conformation of MHC class II I-A(g7) is sensitive to the P9 anchor amino acid in bound peptide.

Gardiner A, Richards KA, Sant AJ, Arneson LS

International immunology.. 2007 September 19 (9):1103-13. Epub 1900 01 01.

Direct ex vivo analyses of HLA-DR1 transgenic mice reveal an exceptionally broad pattern of immunodominance in the primary HLA-DR1-restricted CD4 T-cell response to influenza virus hemagglutinin.

Richards KA, Chaves FA, Krafcik FR, Topham DJ, Lazarski CA, Sant AJ

Journal of virology.. 2007 July 81 (14):7608-19. Epub 05/16/2007.

Immunodominance in CD4 T-cell responses: implications for immune responses to influenza virus and for vaccine design.

Sant AJ, Chaves FA, Krafcik FR, Lazarski CA, Menges P, Richards K, Weaver JM

Expert review of vaccines.. 2007 June 6 (3):357-68. Epub 1900 01 01.

Measurement of peptide dissociation from MHC class II molecules.

Chaves FA, Sant AJ

Current protocols in immunology / edited by John E. Coligan ... [et

Peptide-binding motifs for the I-Ad MHC class II molecule: alternate pH-dependent binding behavior.

Chaves FA, Richards KA, Torelli A, Wedekind J, Sant AJ

Biochemistry.. 2006 May 2345 (20):6426-33. Epub 1900 01 01.

The impact of DM on MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation can be altered by manipulation of MHC-peptide kinetic stability.

Lazarski CA, Chaves FA, Sant AJ

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 2006 May 15203 (5):1319-28. Epub 05/08/2006.

The relationship between immunodominance, DM editing, and the kinetic stability of MHC class II:peptide complexes.

Sant AJ, Chaves FA, Jenks SA, Richards KA, Menges P, Weaver JM, Lazarski CA

Immunological reviews.. 2005 October 207 :261-78. Epub 1900 01 01.

Energetics and cooperativity of the hydrogen bonding and anchor interactions that bind peptides to MHC class II protein.

McFarland BJ, Katz JF, Sant AJ, Beeson C

Journal of molecular biology.. 2005 July 1350 (1):170-83. Epub 1900 01 01.

The kinetic stability of MHC class II:peptide complexes is a key parameter that dictates immunodominance.

Lazarski CA, Chaves FA, Jenks SA, Wu S, Richards KA, Weaver JM, Sant AJ

Immunity.. 2005 July 23 (1):29-40. Epub 1900 01 01.

Hydrogen bond integrity between MHC class II molecules and bound peptide determines the intracellular fate of MHC class II molecules.

Arneson LS, Katz JF, Liu M, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2001 December 15167 (12):6939-46. Epub 1900 01 01.

Energetic asymmetry among hydrogen bonds in MHC class II*peptide complexes.

McFarland BJ, Katz JF, Beeson C, Sant AJ

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 2001 July 3198 (16):9231-6. Epub 07/24/2001.

DM determines the cryptic and immunodominant fate of T cell epitopes.

Nanda NK, Sant AJ

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 2000 September 18192 (6):781-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

The MHC class II molecule I-Ag7 exists in alternate conformations that are peptide dependent.

Arneson LS, Peterson M, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 2000 August 15165 (4):2059-67. Epub 1900 01 01.

Ovalbumin(323-339) peptide binds to the major histocompatibility complex class II I-A(d) protein using two functionally distinct registers.

McFarland BJ, Sant AJ, Lybrand TP, Beeson C

Biochemistry.. 1999 December 1438 (50):16663-70. Epub 1900 01 01.

Individual hydrogen bonds play a critical role in MHC class II: peptide interactions: implications for the dynamic aspects of class II trafficking and DM-mediated peptide exchange.

Sant AJ, Beeson C, McFarland B, Cao J, Ceman S, Bryant PW, Wu S

Immunological reviews.. 1999 December 172 :239-53. Epub 1900 01 01.

Cutting edge: a single, essential hydrogen bond controls the stability of peptide-MHC class II complexes.

McFarland BJ, Beeson C, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1999 October 1163 (7):3567-71. Epub 1900 01 01.

Deviant trafficking of I-Ad mutant molecules is reflected in their peptide binding properties.

Bryant PW, Roos P, Ploegh HL, Sant AJ

European journal of immunology.. 1999 September 29 (9):2729-39. Epub 1900 01 01.

Ig alpha and Ig beta are required for efficient trafficking to late endosomes and to enhance antigen presentation.

Siemasko K, Eisfelder BJ, Stebbins C, Kabak S, Sant AJ, Song W, Clark MR

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1999 June 1162 (11):6518-25. Epub 1900 01 01.

Alteration of a single hydrogen bond between class II molecules and peptide results in rapid degradation of class II molecules after invariant chain removal.

Ceman S, Wu S, Jardetzky TS, Sant AJ

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 1998 December 7188 (11):2139-49. Epub 1900 01 01.

The inability of the nonobese diabetic class II molecule to form stable peptide complexes does not reflect a failure to interact productively with DM.

Peterson M, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1998 September 15161 (6):2961-7. Epub 1900 01 01.

Late events in the intracellular sorting of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules are regulated by the 80-82 segment of the class II beta chain.

Tan LJ, Ceman S, Chervonsky A, Rodriguez-Paris J, Steck TL, Sant AJ

European journal of immunology.. 1997 June 27 (6):1479-88. Epub 1900 01 01.

DM-mediated release of a naturally occurring invariant chain degradation intermediate from MHC class II molecules.

Stebbins CC, Peterson ME, Suh WM, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1996 December 1157 (11):4892-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

Invariant chain and DM edit self-peptide presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules.

Katz JF, Stebbins C, Appella E, Sant AJ

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 1996 November 1184 (5):1747-53. Epub 1900 01 01.

The function of invariant chain in class II-restricted antigen presentation.

Ceman S, Sant AJ

Seminars in immunology.. 1995 December 7 (6):373-87. Epub 1900 01 01.

Identification of a unique costimulatory activity for murine T helper 1 T cell clones.

Zuckerman LA, Sant AJ, Miller J

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1995 May 1154 (9):4503-12. Epub 1900 01 01.

The requirement for DM in class II-restricted antigen presentation and SDS-stable dimer formation is allele and species dependent.

Stebbins CC, Loss GE, Elias CG, Chervonsky A, Sant AJ

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 1995 January 1181 (1):223-34. Epub 1900 01 01.

A segment of the MHC class II beta chain plays a critical role in targeting class II molecules to the endocytic pathway.

Chervonsky AV, Gordon L, Sant AJ

International immunology.. 1994 July 6 (7):973-82. Epub 1900 01 01.

T cell receptor recognition of MHC class II alloantigens is highly cell type dependent.

Katz JF, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1994 February 15152 (4):1629-40. Epub 1900 01 01.

MHC class II antigen processing: biology of invariant chain.

Sant AJ, Miller J

Current opinion in immunology.. 1994 February 6 (1):57-63. Epub 1900 01 01.

Endogenous antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules.

Sant AJ

Immunologic research.. 1994 13 (4):253-67. Epub 1900 01 01.

Isotypic residues in the membrane proximal domain of MHC class II beta-chains control activation of CD4+ T cells.

Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1993 June 15150 (12):5299-310. Epub 1900 01 01.

Invariant chain retains MHC class II molecules in the endocytic pathway.

Loss GE, Sant AJ

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1993 April 15150 (8 Pt 1):3187-97. Epub 1900 01 01.

Some cloned murine CD4+ T cells recognize H-2Ld class I MHC determinants directly. Other cloned CD4+ T cells recognize H-2Ld class I MHC determinants in the context of class II MHC molecules.

McKisic MD, Sant AJ, Fitch FW

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1991 November 1147 (9):2868-74. Epub 1900 01 01.

Defective intracellular transport as a common mechanism limiting expression of inappropriately paired class II major histocompatibility complex alpha/beta chains.

Sant AJ, Hendrix LR, Coligan JE, Maloy WL, Germain RN

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 1991 October 1174 (4):799-808. Epub 1900 01 01.

Cell surface expression of hybrid murine/human MHC class II beta alpha dimers. Key influence of residues in the amino-terminal portion of the beta 1 domain.

Lechler RI, Sant AJ, Braunstein NS, Sekaly R, Long E, Germain RN

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1990 January 1144 (1):329-33. Epub 1900 01 01.

Intracellular competition for component chains determines class II MHC cell surface phenotype.

Sant AJ, Germain RN

Cell.. 1989 June 257 (5):797-805. Epub 1900 01 01.

Human Ia alpha- and beta-chains are sulfated.

Sant AJ, Zacheis M, Rumbarger T, Giacoletto KS, Schwartz BD

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1988 January 1140 (1):155-60. Epub 1900 01 01.

The molecular basis of antigen presentation.

Germain RN, Sant AJ, Braunstein NS, Ronchese F

Princess Takamatsu symposia. 1988 19 :179-91. Epub 1900 01 01.

Predominant role of amino-terminal sequences in dictating efficiency of class II major histocompatibility complex alpha beta dimer expression.

Sant AJ, Braunstein NS, Germain RN

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 1987 November 84 (22):8065-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

The human invariant chain is the core protein of the human class II-associated proteoglycan.

Giacoletto KS, Sant AJ, Bono C, Gorka J, O'Sullivan DM, Quaranta V, Schwartz BD

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 1986 November 1164 (5):1422-39. Epub 1900 01 01.

Invariant chain is the core protein of the Ia-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan.

Sant AJ, Cullen SE, Giacoletto KS, Schwartz BD

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 1985 December 1162 (6):1916-34. Epub 1900 01 01.

Biosynthetic relationships of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with Ia and invariant chain glycoproteins.

Sant AJ, Cullen SE, Schwartz BD

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1985 July 135 (1):416-22. Epub 1900 01 01.

Cellular distribution of the Ia-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan.

Sant AJ, Schwartz BD, Cullen SE

The Journal of immunology : official journal of the American Association of Immunologists.. 1985 July 135 (1):408-15. Epub 1900 01 01.

Identification of a sulfate-bearing molecule associated with HLA class II antigens.

Sant AJ, Cullen SE, Schwartz BD

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 1984 March 81 (5):1534-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

Identification of a new component in the murine Ia molecular complex.

Sant AJ, Schwartz BD, Cullen SE

The Journal of experimental medicine.. 1983 December 1158 (6):1979-92. Epub 1900 01 01.

Books

Immunodominance: The Choice of the Immune System (2006)

Chapter: The Mechanics of Class II Processing: Establishment of a Class II Hierarchy

Authors: Drake J; Sant AJ

Publisher: Wiley-VCH 2006

Antigen Processing and Presentation (1994)

Chapter: Intracellular events regulating MHC Class II restricted antigen presentation

Authors: Sant, AJ, Chervonsky, A, Dykhuizen, M, Katz, JF, Loss, GE, Stebbins, C, and LJ Tan

Publisher: Academic Press 1994

Antigen Presenting Cells: Diversity, Differentiation and Regulation (1988)

Chapter: DNA-mediated gene transfer as a tool for analyzing la structure-function relationships and antigen presentation

Authors: Braunstein, NS, Ronchese, F, Sant, AJ, Schwartz, RH, Lechler, RI, and Germain, RN

Publisher: Alan R. Liss, Inc. 1988

Processing and Presentation of Antigens (1988)

Chapter: la structure and immune recognition

Authors: Germain, RN, Braunstein, NS, Lechler, RI, Miller, J, Ronchese, F, and Sant, AJ

Publisher: Academic Press NY 1988