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William E. O'Neill, Ph.D.

Contact Information

Phone Numbers

Office: (585) 275-4023

Fax: (585) 756-5334

Research Labs

Biography

RESEARCH:

Processing of Complex Acoustic Signals in the Central Auditory System; Echolocation; Aging Effects on Temporal and Spatial Processing in the Central Auditory System.

Acoustic communication, including human speech, is mediated by dynamic sounds that vary in both time and frequency. Recent research focuses on the neuronal mechanisms in the auditory midbrain involved in the encoding of complex biologically-relevant acoustic signals. In particular, we are interested in the neural basis for the perception of brief frequency modulations (FM), which are nearly ubiquitous in the communication sounds used by most vertebrates, including consonant-vowel transitions in human speech. Our studies have been carried out in echolocating mustached bats that emit biosonar signals with prominent FM sweeps. Neurons in the bat auditory midbrain, thalamus and cortex are often selective for the direction of frequency change in FM sweeps, with some preferring upward sweeps, and others preferring downward sweeps. We have shown that directional preference depends on the velocity of frequency change in the sweep that is correlated with a time dependent interaction between excitation and inhibition driving these cells. By using pseudorandom tone sequences to mimic the dynamic acoustic microstructure of FM sweeps, we have developed a novel way to describe auditory receptive fields that captures the dynamic non-linear interactions underlying the encoding of these signals. Techniques include digital sound synthesis, neurophysiological recording of single-unit activity, anatomical tract tracing, and immunocytochemistry.
A second area of investigation is aimed at a common complaint of elderly listeners, who report having no trouble understanding speech in quiet, but suffer significant loss of intelligibility in noisy environments, even though they have minimal peripheral hearing loss. This effort is carried out by a team of investigators at the UR and Rochester Inst. of Technology. Our working hypothesis is that this problem is caused by deterioration of temporal processing in the central auditory system. To address this question, young and old human and animal subjects (inbred mice, gerbils, guinea pigs) are tested in parallel at functionally comparable life stages, with the intention of ultimately understanding which central auditory processes deteriorate with age, and what strategies might be developed to ameliorate this problem.
A third project, done in collaboration with NBA Department chair Dr. Gary Paige, also has an aging component. We are investigating in human subjects how spatial information, separately encoded in visual, auditory and vestibular coordinate space, is combined to create a unified sense of personal space, and how this concordance of spatial information processing changes with age. Current experiments being carried out by graduate and undergraduate students revolve around 1) the effect of distraction on auditory localization in the elderly, and 2) the effect of displaced eye or ear position on auditory localization.

Professional Background

EDUCATION:

Cornell University Ecology and Evolution 1969 B.S.
SUNY at Stony Brook Neurobiology and Behavior 1976 Ph.D.

POSTDOCTORAL TRAINING:

Washington University Physiology and Biophysics 9/76 - 8/79 Trainee


FACULTY APPOINTMENTS:

1996-Present Associate Professor University of Rochester Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy
1996-Present Associate Professor University of Rochester Department of Brain and Cognitive Science
1/1996-6/1996 Associate Professor University of Rochester Department of Pharmacology & Physiology
1987-1995 Associate Professor University of Rochester Department of Physiology
1986-1987 Associate Professor University of Rochester Center for Brain Research
1979-1986 Assistant Professor University of Rochester Center for Brain Research
12/1975-9/1976 Instructor S.U.N.Y. Stony Brook

Research

RESEARCH:

Processing of Complex Acoustic Signals in the Central Auditory System; Echolocation; Aging Effects on Temporal and Spatial Processing in the Central Auditory System.

Acoustic communication, including human speech, is mediated by dynamic sounds that vary in both time and frequency. Recent research focuses on the neuronal mechanisms in the auditory midbrain involved in the encoding of complex biologically-relevant acoustic signals. In particular, we are interested in the neural basis for the perception of brief frequency modulations (FM), which are nearly ubiquitous in the communication sounds used by most vertebrates, including consonant-vowel transitions in human speech. Our studies have been carried out in echolocating mustached bats that emit biosonar signals with prominent FM sweeps. Neurons in the bat auditory midbrain, thalamus and cortex are often selective for the direction of frequency change in FM sweeps, with some preferring upward sweeps, and others preferring downward sweeps. We have shown that directional preference depends on the velocity of frequency change in the sweep that is correlated with a time dependent interaction between excitation and inhibition driving these cells. By using pseudorandom tone sequences to mimic the dynamic acoustic microstructure of FM sweeps, we have developed a novel way to describe auditory receptive fields that captures the dynamic non-linear interactions underlying the encoding of these signals. Techniques include digital sound synthesis, neurophysiological recording of single-unit activity, anatomical tract tracing, and immunocytochemistry.
A second area of investigation is aimed at a common complaint of elderly listeners, who report having no trouble understanding speech in quiet, but suffer significant loss of intelligibility in noisy environments, even though they have minimal peripheral hearing loss. This effort is carried out by a team of investigators at the UR and Rochester Inst. of Technology. Our working hypothesis is that this problem is caused by deterioration of temporal processing in the central auditory system. To address this question, young and old human and animal subjects (inbred mice, gerbils, guinea pigs) are tested in parallel at functionally comparable life stages, with the intention of ultimately understanding which central auditory processes deteriorate with age, and what strategies might be developed to ameliorate this problem.
A third project, done in collaboration with NBA Department chair Dr. Gary Paige, also has an aging component. We are investigating in human subjects how spatial information, separately encoded in visual, auditory and vestibular coordinate space, is combined to create a unified sense of personal space, and how this concordance of spatial information processing changes with age. Current experiments being carried out by graduate and undergraduate students revolve around 1) the effect of distraction on auditory localization in the elderly, and 2) the effect of displaced eye or ear position on auditory localization.

RECENT PUBLICATIONS:

Zettel, M.L., X. Zhu, W.E. O'Neill, and R.D. Frisina. Age-related Decline in Kv3.1b Expression in the Mouse Auditory Brainstem Correlates with Functional Deficits in the Medial Olivocochlear Efferent System. J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 8(2): 280 – 293, 2007.
Razavi B., W.E. O'Neill, and G.D. Paige. Auditory spatial perception dynamically realigns with changing eye position. J. Neuroscience 27(38): 10,249 – 10,258, 2007.
Ison, J.R., P.D. Allen, and W.E. O'Neill. Age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice has both frequency specific and non-frequency specific components that produce a hyperacusis-like exaggeration of the startle reflex. J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 8(4): 539-550, 2007.

Credentials

Faculty Appointments

Education

1969
BS | Cornell University
Neurophysiology

1976
PhD | Stony Brook Univ Health Sciences Center School of Medicine
Behavioral Science, Other

Awards

1976 - 1979
NIH Training Grant, Research,
Location: Washington University.

1965 - 1969
New York State Regents Scholarship,
Location: Cornell University.

Publications

Journal Articles

12/2012
Helmreich DL, Tylee D, Christianson JP, Kubala KH, Govindarajan ST, O'Neill WE, Becoats K, Watkins L, Maier SF. "Active behavioral coping alters the behavioral but not the endocrine response to stress." Psychoneuroendocrinology.. 2012 Dec 0; 37(12):1941-8. Epub 2012 May 10.

12/2012
Dobreva MS, O'Neill WE, Paige GD. "Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects." Experimental brain research.. 2012 Dec 0; 223(4):441-55. Epub 2012 Oct 14.

5/2011
Dobreva, Marina S.; O'Neill, William E.; Paige, Gary D. "Influence of aging on human sound localization". Journal of Neurophysiology. 2011; 105(5): 2471-2486.

Books & Chapters

2008
Chapter Title: Eye position and cross-sensory learning both contribute to prism adaptation of auditory space
Book Title: Using Eye Movements as an Experimental Probe of Brain Function
Author List: Cui, Qi N., L. Bachus, E. Knoth, W. E. O'Neill and G. D. Paige
Edited By: C. Kennard and R.J. Leigh
Published By: Elsevier2008

2008
Chapter Title: Eye position and cross-sensory learning both contribute to prism adaptation of auditory space.
Book Title: Progress in Brain Research
Author List: Cui, Qi N., L. Bachus, E. Knoth, W. E. O'Neill and G. D. Paige
Edited By: C. Kennard and R.J. Leigh
Published By: Elsevier2008

2003
Chapter Title: The mustached bat auditory cortex.
Book Title: Echolocation in Bats and Dolphins,
Author List: O'Neill, W.E.
Edited By: J. Thomas, C. Moss, M. Vater
Published By: Univ. of Chicago Press2003 in Chicago

VIEW ALL PUBLICATIONS