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Richard T. Libby, Ph.D.

Richard T. Libby, Ph.D.


Call Center (585) 276-3000

About Me

Faculty Appointments

Professor - Department of Ophthalmology (SMD)

Senior Associate Dean, Graduate Education and Post-Doctoral Affairs - Dean's Office M&D - Administration (SMD)

Professor - Department of Biomedical Genetics (SMD) - Joint

Professor - Center for Visual Science A&S (RC) - Joint

Professor - Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (SMD) - Joint


Residency & Fellowship

Postdoctoral Fellow in Dr. Simon John's Laboratory. The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME. Neurodegeneration in Glaucoma. 2001 - 2005


Doctorate in Biology | Boston College. 1997

Bachelor of Science in Biology | Villanova University. 0


The Thomas R. Lee Award for National Glaucoma Research. 2020

Graduate Student Society Advocacy Award. 2020

Shaffer Prize for Research. 2017

University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry Trainee Academic Mentoring Award in Basic Science.. 2013

Research to Prevent Blindness Career Development Award. 2006 - 2010

Donald J. White Teaching Excellence Award.. 1993 - 1997


Research Overview
Glaucoma is a complex group of diseases where many different genetic and environmental factors conspire to cause vision loss. While there are many different causes of glaucoma, the ultimate cause of vision loss in all glaucomas is the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the ...
Research Overview
Glaucoma is a complex group of diseases where many different genetic and environmental factors conspire to cause vision loss. While there are many different causes of glaucoma, the ultimate cause of vision loss in all glaucomas is the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the output neurons of the retina. Therefore, glaucoma is a neurodegeneration. Our lab focuses on the neurobiology of glaucoma. Primarily, we use mouse models of glaucoma and advanced mouse genetics to probe the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Specifically, we are interested in understanding the molecular processes that lead to RGC death in glaucoma and why are RGCs more likely to die in some patients than in others.

Cell Death Pathways Active in Glaucoma
To date, no molecules are known to be necessary for glaucomatous neurodegeneration nor has the initial molecular trigger(s) been identified. Identifying the molecular pathways required for RGC death in glaucoma will answer fundamental questions about neuronal pathophysiology and will identify potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of optic neuropathies. To determine the molecular degeneration cascades active in glaucoma we are taking two approaches. (1) Candidate gene analysis. The neurotrophic deprivation pathway (as one example) has been implicated as a critical pathway for glaucomatous RGC death. At both the protein and RNA level, we found that components of this pathway (e.g. BIM, JUN, and JNKs) are present in glaucomatous DBA/2J mice, suggesting that this pathway contributes to RGC death. Currently using our knowledge of the key mediator of somal apoptosis in DBA/2J glaucoma (BAX activation) and the other molecules that have been impacted in glaucoma, we are attempting to 'back track' our way up the RGC degeneration pathway. Eventually we hope this approach will lead to a complete identification of the somal and axonal degeneration pathways and to the initial molecular trigger(s) in glaucoma. (2) Genomic analysis. We are also using microarray analysis to investigate DBA/2J glaucoma. Microarray analysis has the potential to identify molecules involved in glaucomatous neurodegeneration that could not be predicted from current knowledge. In these experiments, gene expression changes at various, distinct stages of DBA/2J glaucomatous neurodegeneration are being examined.

Neuronal Susceptibility Factors
Elevated intraocular pressure is the best known risk factor for glaucoma. However, there is extensive patient variability in what constitutes pathogenic intraocular pressure (IOP), suggesting that other susceptibility factors are important in glaucoma. Therefore, even though glaucoma is clearly associated with IOP, susceptibility factors intrinsic to the RGCs and/or other retinal cells are likely critical mediators of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. We are attempting to define the genetic susceptibility factors that conspire with IOP to determine the probability of developing glaucoma and/or the severity of glaucoma. For instance we have shown that deficiencies in BAX gene dosage (a key molecule in the glaucomatous RGC degeneration pathway) can slow RGC loss in glaucomatous mice. These data suggest that allelic differences in components of the RGC degeneration pathway may contribute to glaucoma pathology. Also, we have been addressing the effect of blood pressure on glaucoma by backcrossing a null allele of angiotensin receptor 1 (Agtr1; deficiency in Agtr1 lowers blood pressure in mice) into DBA/2J. Low blood pressure in DBA/2J mice significantly increases the rate of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Therefore, it appears that many diverse genetic factors can contribute to glaucomatous neurodegeneration and that the DBA/2J mouse is an effective tool in identifying these factors.

Research Lab


Journal Articles

Microglia Depletion leads to Increased Susceptibility to Ocular Hypertension-Dependent Glaucoma.

Diemler CA, MacLean M, Heuer SE, Hewes AA, Marola OJ, Libby RT, Howell GR

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology.. 2024 March 10 Epub 03/10/2024.

Age- and glaucoma-induced changes to the ocular glymphatic system.

Wang X, Delle C, Peng W, Plá V, Giannetto M, Kusk P, Sigurdsson B, Sakurai S, Sweeney A, Sun Q, Du T, Libby RT, Nedergaard M

Neurobiology of disease.. 2023 October 11 :106322. Epub 10/11/2023.

BAX activation in mouse retinal ganglion cells occurs in two temporally and mechanistically distinct steps.

Maes ME, Donahue RJ, Schlamp CL, Marola OJ, Libby RT, Nickells RW

Molecular neurodegeneration.. 2023 September 2618 (1):67. Epub 09/26/2023.

BclX (Bcl2l1) gene therapy lessens retinal ganglion cell soma loss but not axonal degeneration after acute axonal injury.

Marola OJ, Yablonski SER, Shrager PG, Nickells RW, Libby RT

Cell death discovery.. 2022 July 228 (1):331. Epub 07/22/2022.

Vascular derived endothelin receptor A controls endothelin-induced retinal ganglion cell death.

Marola OJ, Howell GR, Libby RT

Cell death discovery.. 2022 April 168 (1):207. Epub 04/16/2022.

Transcriptional control of retinal ganglion cell death after axonal injury.

Syc-Mazurek SB, Yang HS, Marola OJ, Howell GR, Libby RT

Cell death & disease.. 2022 March 1613 (3):244. Epub 03/16/2022.

TNF-? and NF-?B signaling play a critical role in cigarette smoke-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of retinal pigment epithelial cells in proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

Wang V, Heffer A, Roztocil E, Feldon SE, Libby RT, Woeller CF, Kuriyan AE

PloS one.. 2022 17 (9):e0271950. Epub 09/01/2022.

Endothelin 1-induced retinal ganglion cell death is largely mediated by JUN activation.

Marola OJ, Syc-Mazurek SB, Howell GR, Libby RT

Cell death & disease.. 2020 September 2611 (9):811. Epub 09/26/2020.

A Mouse Model of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy Induced by Intravitreal Injection of Gas and RPE Cells.

Heffer A, Wang V, Sridhar J, Feldon SE, Libby RT, Woeller CF, Kuriyan AE

Translational vision science & technology.. 2020 June 9 (7):9. Epub 06/05/2020.

An ocular glymphatic clearance system removes ?-amyloid from the rodent eye.

Wang X, Lou N, Eberhardt A, Yang Y, Kusk P, Xu Q, Förstera B, Peng S, Shi M, Ladrón-de-Guevara A, Delle C, Sigurdsson B, Xavier ALR, Ertürk A, Libby RT, Chen L, Thrane AS, Nedergaard M

Science translational medicine.. 2020 March 2512 (536)Epub 1900 01 01.

Salinomycin inhibits proliferative vitreoretinopathy formation in a mouse model.

Heffer AM, Wang V, Libby RT, Feldon SE, Woeller CF, Kuriyan AE

PloS one.. 2020 15 (12):e0243626. Epub 12/21/2020.

Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy combined with laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy.

Yoon C, Qi Y, Mestre H, Canavesi C, Marola OJ, Cogliati A, Nedergaard M, Libby RT, Rolland JP

Biomedical optics express.. 2019 December 110 (12):6242-6257. Epub 11/14/2019.

Axon injury signaling and compartmentalized injury response in glaucoma.

Syc-Mazurek SB, Libby RT

Progress in retinal and eye research. 2019 July 10 Epub 07/10/2019.

The polyether ionophore salinomycin targets multiple cellular pathways to block proliferative vitreoretinopathy pathology.

Heffer AM, Proaño J, Roztocil E, Phipps RP, Feldon SE, Huxlin KR, Sime PJ, Libby RT, Woeller CF, Kuriyan AE

PloS one.. 2019 14 (9):e0222596. Epub 09/17/2019.

DDIT3 (CHOP) contributes to retinal ganglion cell somal loss but not axonal degeneration in DBA/2J mice.

Marola OJ, Syc-Mazurek SB, Libby RT

Cell death discovery.. 2019 5 :140. Epub 10/10/2019.

Mkk4 and Mkk7 are important for retinal development and axonal injury-induced retinal ganglion cell death.

Syc-Mazurek SB, Rausch RL, Fernandes KA, Wilson MP, Libby RT

Cell death & disease.. 2018 October 269 (11):1095. Epub 10/26/2018.

Jnk2 deficiency increases the rate of glaucomatous neurodegeneration in ocular hypertensive DBA/2J mice.

Harder JM, Williams PA, Soto I, Foxworth NE, Fernandes KA, Freeburg NF, Libby RT, John SWM

Cell death & disease.. 2018 June 139 (6):705. Epub 06/13/2018.

Role of SARM1 and DR6 in retinal ganglion cell axonal and somal degeneration following axonal injury.

Fernandes KA, Mitchell KL, Patel A, Marola OJ, Shrager P, Zack DJ, Libby RT, Welsbie DS

Experimental eye research.. 2018 June 171 :54-61. Epub 03/08/2018.

Trabecular meshwork morphogenesis: A comparative analysis of wildtype and anterior segment dysgenesis mouse models.

Rausch RL, Libby RT, Kiernan AE

Experimental eye research.. 2018 May 170 :81-91. Epub 02/13/2018.

Assessment of intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathway in excitotoxic retinal ganglion cell death.

Fahrenthold BK, Fernandes KA, Libby RT

Scientific reports.. 2018 March 158 (1):4641. Epub 03/15/2018.

Ciliary margin-derived BMP4 does not have a major role in ocular development.

Rausch RL, Libby RT, Kiernan AE

PloS one.. 2018 13 (5):e0197048. Epub 05/08/2018.

KLF9 and JNK3 Interact to Suppress Axon Regeneration in the Adult CNS.

Apara A, Galvao J, Wang Y, Blackmore M, Trillo A, Iwao K, Brown DP, Fernandes KA, Huang A, Nguyen T, Ashouri M, Zhang X, Shaw PX, Kunzevitzky NJ, Moore DL, Libby RT, Goldberg JL

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.. 2017 October 437 (40):9632-9644. Epub 09/04/2017.

Together JUN and DDIT3 (CHOP) control retinal ganglion cell death after axonal injury.

Syc-Mazurek SB, Fernandes KA, Wilson MP, Shrager P, Libby RT

Molecular neurodegeneration.. 2017 October 212 (1):71. Epub 10/02/2017.

JUN is important for ocular hypertension-induced retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

Syc-Mazurek SB, Fernandes KA, Libby RT

Cell death & disease.. 2017 July 208 (7):e2945. Epub 07/20/2017.

Early immune responses are independent of RGC dysfunction in glaucoma with complement component C3 being protective.

Harder JM, Braine CE, Williams PA, Zhu X, MacNicoll KH, Sousa GL, Buchanan RA, Smith RS, Libby RT, Howell GR, John SWM

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 2017 May 9114 (19):E3839-E3848. Epub 04/26/2017.

Neuroprotection for glaucoma: Requirements for clinical translation.

Levin LA, Crowe ME, Quigley HA,

Experimental eye research.. 2017 April 157 :34-37. Epub 12/09/2016.

G-Protein-Coupled Receptor-2-Interacting Protein-1 Controls Stalk Cell Fate by Inhibiting Delta-like 4-Notch1 Signaling.

Majumder S, Zhu G, Xu X, Senchanthisai S, Jiang D, Liu H, Xue C, Wang X, Coia H, Cui Z, Smolock EM, Libby RT, Berk BC, Pang J

Cell reports.. 2016 December 617 (10):2532-2541. Epub 1900 01 01.

Quantitative measurement of retinal ganglion cell populations via histology-based random forest classification.

Hedberg-Buenz A, Christopher MA, Lewis CJ, Fernandes KA, Dutca LM, Wang K, Scheetz TE, Abramoff MD, Libby RT, Garvin MK, Anderson MG

Experimental eye research.. 2016 May 146 :370-85. Epub 10/22/2015.

Novel axon projection after stress and degeneration in the Dscam mutant retina.

Fernandes KA, Bloomsburg SJ, Miller CJ, Billingslea SA, Merrill MM, Burgess RW, Libby RT, Fuerst PG

Molecular and cellular neurosciences.. 2016 March 71 :1-12. Epub 12/10/2015.

Col4a1 mutations cause progressive retinal neovascular defects and retinopathy.

Alavi MV, Mao M, Pawlikowski BT, Kvezereli M, Duncan JL, Libby RT, John SW, Gould DB

Scientific reports.. 2016 January 276 :18602. Epub 01/27/2016.

Using genetic mouse models to gain insight into glaucoma: Past results and future possibilities.

Fernandes KA, Harder JM, Williams PA, Rausch RL, Kiernan AE, Nair KS, Anderson MG, John SW, Howell GR, Libby RT

Experimental eye research.. 2015 December 141 :42-56. Epub 06/24/2015.

Strain-Dependent Anterior Segment Dysgenesis and Progression to Glaucoma in Col4a1 Mutant Mice.

Mao M, Smith RS, Alavi MV, Marchant JK, Cosma M, Libby RT, John SW, Gould DB

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science.. 2015 October 56 (11):6823-31. Epub 1900 01 01.

Tumor necrosis factor alpha has an early protective effect on retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush.

Mac Nair CE, Fernandes KA, Schlamp CL, Libby RT, Nickells RW

Journal of neuroinflammation.. 2014 November 1911 :194. Epub 11/19/2014.

DLK-dependent signaling is important for somal but not axonal degeneration of retinal ganglion cells following axonal injury.

Fernandes KA, Harder JM, John SW, Shrager P, Libby RT

Neurobiology of disease.. 2014 September 69 :108-16. Epub 05/27/2014.

Phospholipid flippase ATP8A2 is required for normal visual and auditory function and photoreceptor and spiral ganglion cell survival.

Coleman JA, Zhu X, Djajadi HR, Molday LL, Smith RS, Libby RT, John SW, Molday RS

Journal of cell science.. 2014 March 1127 (Pt 5):1138-49. Epub 01/10/2014.

Focal damage to macaque photoreceptors produces persistent visual loss.

Strazzeri JM, Hunter JJ, Masella BD, Yin L, Fischer WS, Diloreto DA, Libby RT, Williams DR, Merigan WH

Experimental eye research.. 2014 February 119 :88-96. Epub 12/05/2013.

Pou4f1 and pou4f2 are dispensable for the long-term survival of adult retinal ganglion cells in mice.

Huang L, Hu F, Xie X, Harder J, Fernandes K, Zeng XY, Libby R, Gan L

PloS one.. 2014 9 (4):e94173. Epub 04/15/2014.

DBA/2J mice are susceptible to diabetic nephropathy and diabetic exacerbation of IOP elevation.

Soto I, Howell GR, John CW, Kief JL, Libby RT, John SW

PloS one.. 2014 9 (9):e107291. Epub 09/10/2014.

Intrinsic axonal degeneration pathways are critical for glaucomatous damage.

Howell GR, Soto I, Libby RT, John SW

Experimental neurology.. 2013 August 246 :54-61. Epub 01/18/2012.

JUN regulates early transcriptional responses to axonal injury in retinal ganglion cells.

Fernandes KA, Harder JM, Kim J, Libby RT

Experimental eye research.. 2013 July 112 :106-17. Epub 05/03/2013.

Transcription factors SOX4 and SOX11 function redundantly to regulate the development of mouse retinal ganglion cells.

Jiang Y, Ding Q, Xie X, Libby R, Lefebvre V, Gan L

The Journal of biological chemistry.. 2013 June 21288 (25):18429-38. Epub 05/06/2013.

Adding metabolomics to the toolbox for studying retinal disease.

Howell GR, Libby RT

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science.. 2013 June 2154 (6):4260. Epub 06/21/2013.

Notch2 regulates BMP signaling and epithelial morphogenesis in the ciliary body of the mouse eye.

Zhou Y, Tanzie C, Yan Z, Chen S, Duncan M, Gaudenz K, Li H, Seidel C, Lewis B, Moran A, Libby RT, Kiernan AE, Xie T

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 2013 May 28110 (22):8966-71. Epub 05/15/2013.

Deficiency in Bim, Bid and Bbc3 (Puma) do not prevent axonal injury induced death.

Harder JM, Libby RT

Cell death and differentiation.. 2013 January 20 (1):182. Epub 09/21/2012.

BCL2L1 (BCL-X) promotes survival of adult and developing retinal ganglion cells.

Harder JM, Ding Q, Fernandes KA, Cherry JD, Gan L, Libby RT

Molecular and cellular neurosciences.. 2012 August 51 (1-2):53-9. Epub 07/24/2012.

JNK2 and JNK3 are major regulators of axonal injury-induced retinal ganglion cell death.

Fernandes KA, Harder JM, Fornarola LB, Freeman RS, Clark AF, Pang IH, John SW, Libby RT

Neurobiology of disease.. 2012 May 46 (2):393-401. Epub 02/14/2012.

Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye.

Geng Y, Dubra A, Yin L, Merigan WH, Sharma R, Libby RT, Williams DR

Biomedical optics express.. 2012 April 13 (4):715-34. Epub 03/15/2012.

Radiation treatment inhibits monocyte entry into the optic nerve head and prevents neuronal damage in a mouse model of glaucoma.

Howell GR, Soto I, Zhu X, Ryan M, Macalinao DG, Sousa GL, Caddle LB, Macnicoll KH, Barbay JM, Porciatti V, Anderson MG, Smith RS, Clark AF, Libby RT, John SW

The Journal of clinical investigation.. 2012 April 122 (4):1246-61. Epub 03/19/2012.

The Bcl-2 family member BIM has multiple glaucoma-relevant functions in DBA/2J mice.

Harder JM, Fernandes KA, Libby RT

Scientific reports.. 2012 2 :530. Epub 07/25/2012.

Mutations in a P-type ATPase gene cause axonal degeneration.

Zhu X, Libby RT, de Vries WN, Smith RS, Wright DL, Bronson RT, Seburn KL, John SW

PLoS genetics.. 2012 8 (8):e1002853. Epub 08/09/2012.

Datgan, a reusable software system for facile interrogation and visualization of complex transcription profiling data.

Howell GR, Walton DO, King BL, Libby RT, John SW

BMC genomics.. 2011 August 2412 :429. Epub 08/24/2011.

BBC3 (PUMA) regulates developmental apoptosis but not axonal injury induced death in the retina.

Harder JM, Libby RT

Molecular neurodegeneration.. 2011 July 156 :50. Epub 07/15/2011.

The Usher 1B protein, MYO7A, is required for normal localization and function of the visual retinoid cycle enzyme, RPE65.

Lopes VS, Gibbs D, Libby RT, Aleman TS, Welch DL, Lillo C, Jacobson SG, Radu RA, Steel KP, Williams DS

Human molecular genetics.. 2011 July 120 (13):2560-70. Epub 04/14/2011.

Ocular fibroblast diversity: implications for inflammation and ocular wound healing.

Xi X, McMillan DH, Lehmann GM, Sime PJ, Libby RT, Huxlin KR, Feldon SE, Phipps RP

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science.. 2011 July 152 (7):4859-65. Epub 07/01/2011.

Intravitreal injection of AAV2 transduces macaque inner retina.

Yin L, Greenberg K, Hunter JJ, Dalkara D, Kolstad KD, Masella BD, Wolfe R, Visel M, Stone D, Libby RT, Diloreto D, Schaffer D, Flannery J, Williams DR, Merigan WH

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science.. 2011 April 2552 (5):2775-83. Epub 04/25/2011.

Molecular clustering identifies complement and endothelin induction as early events in a mouse model of glaucoma.

Howell GR, Macalinao DG, Sousa GL, Walden M, Soto I, Kneeland SC, Barbay JM, King BL, Marchant JK, Hibbs M, Stevens B, Barres BA, Clark AF, Libby RT, John SW

The Journal of clinical investigation.. 2011 April 121 (4):1429-44. Epub 03/07/2011.

Optical properties of the mouse eye.

Geng Y, Schery LA, Sharma R, Dubra A, Ahmad K, Libby RT, Williams DR

Biomedical optics express.. 2011 February 282 (4):717-38. Epub 02/28/2011.

MATH5 controls the acquisition of multiple retinal cell fates.

Feng L, Xie ZH, Ding Q, Xie X, Libby RT, Gan L

Molecular brain.. 2010 November 183 :36. Epub 11/18/2010.

Endoplasmic reticulum stress as a primary pathogenic mechanism leading to age-related macular degeneration.

Libby RT, Gould DB

Advances in experimental medicine and biology.. 2010 664 :403-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

Molecular regulation of cigarette smoke induced-oxidative stress in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: implications for age-related macular degeneration.

Bertram KM, Baglole CJ, Phipps RP, Libby RT

American journal of physiology. Cell physiology.. 2009 November 297 (5):C1200-10. Epub 09/16/2009.

In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging histology comparison.

Scoles D, Gray DC, Hunter JJ, Wolfe R, Gee BP, Geng Y, Masella BD, Libby RT, Russell S, Williams DR, Merigan WH

BMC ophthalmology.. 2009 August 239 :9. Epub 08/23/2009.

BARHL2 differentially regulates the development of retinal amacrine and ganglion neurons.

Ding Q, Chen H, Xie X, Libby RT, Tian N, Gan L

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.. 2009 April 129 (13):3992-4003. Epub 1900 01 01.

Mouse genetic models: an ideal system for understanding glaucomatous neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.

Howell GR, Libby RT, John SW

Progress in brain research.. 2008 173 :303-21. Epub 1900 01 01.

Axons of retinal ganglion cells are insulted in the optic nerve early in DBA/2J glaucoma.

Howell GR, Libby RT, Jakobs TC, Smith RS, Phalan FC, Barter JW, Barbay JM, Marchant JK, Mahesh N, Porciatti V, Whitmore AV, Masland RH, John SW

The Journal of cell biology.. 2007 December 31179 (7):1523-37. Epub 12/24/2007.

Inducible nitric oxide synthase, Nos2, does not mediate optic neuropathy and retinopathy in the DBA/2J glaucoma model.

Libby RT, Howell GR, Pang IH, Savinova OV, Mehalow AK, Barter JW, Smith RS, Clark AF, John SW

BMC neuroscience.. 2007 December 198 :108. Epub 12/19/2007.

Absence of glaucoma in DBA/2J mice homozygous for wild-type versions of Gpnmb and Tyrp1.

Howell GR, Libby RT, Marchant JK, Wilson LA, Cosma IM, Smith RS, Anderson MG, John SW

BMC genetics.. 2007 July 38 :45. Epub 07/03/2007.

Genetic context determines susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation in a mouse pigmentary glaucoma.

Anderson MG, Libby RT, Mao M, Cosma IM, Wilson LA, Smith RS, John SW

BMC biology.. 2006 July 74 :20. Epub 07/07/2006.

Glaucoma: thinking in new ways-a rôle for autonomous axonal self-destruction and other compartmentalised processes?

Whitmore AV, Libby RT, John SW

Progress in retinal and eye research. 2005 November 24 (6):639-62. Epub 1900 01 01.

Retinal ganglion cell degeneration is topological but not cell type specific in DBA/2J mice.

Jakobs TC, Libby RT, Ben Y, John SW, Masland RH

The Journal of cell biology.. 2005 October 24171 (2):313-25. Epub 1900 01 01.

Myosin VI is required for normal retinal function.

Kitamoto J, Libby RT, Gibbs D, Steel KP, Williams DS

Experimental eye research.. 2005 July 81 (1):116-20. Epub 1900 01 01.

Susceptibility to neurodegeneration in a glaucoma is modified by Bax gene dosage.

Libby RT, Li Y, Savinova OV, Barter J, Smith RS, Nickells RW, John SW

PLoS genetics.. 2005 July 1 (1):17-26. Epub 07/25/2005.

High-dose radiation with bone marrow transfer prevents neurodegeneration in an inherited glaucoma.

Anderson MG, Libby RT, Gould DB, Smith RS, John SW

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 2005 March 22102 (12):4566-71. Epub 03/09/2005.

Complex genetics of glaucoma susceptibility.

Libby RT, Gould DB, Anderson MG, John SW

Annual review of genomics and human genetics. 2005 6 :15-44. Epub 1900 01 01.

Inherited glaucoma in DBA/2J mice: pertinent disease features for studying the neurodegeneration.

Libby RT, Anderson MG, Pang IH, Robinson ZH, Savinova OV, Cosma IM, Snow A, Wilson LA, Smith RS, Clark AF, John SW

Visual neuroscience.. 2005 22 (5):637-48. Epub 1900 01 01.

Role of myosin VIIa and Rab27a in the motility and localization of RPE melanosomes.

Gibbs D, Azarian SM, Lillo C, Kitamoto J, Klomp AE, Steel KP, Libby RT, Williams DS

Journal of cell science.. 2004 December 15117 (Pt 26):6473-83. Epub 11/30/2004.

Myosin Va is required for normal photoreceptor synaptic activity.

Libby RT, Lillo C, Kitamoto J, Williams DS, Steel KP

Journal of cell science.. 2004 September 1117 (Pt 19):4509-15. Epub 08/17/2004.

Cdh23 mutations in the mouse are associated with retinal dysfunction but not retinal degeneration.

Libby RT, Kitamoto J, Holme RH, Williams DS, Steel KP

Experimental eye research.. 2003 December 77 (6):731-9. Epub 1900 01 01.

Modification of ocular defects in mouse developmental glaucoma models by tyrosinase.

Libby RT, Smith RS, Savinova OV, Zabaleta A, Martin JE, Gonzalez FJ, John SW

Science.. 2003 March 7299 (5612):1578-81. Epub 1900 01 01.

Loss of myosin VI reduces secretion and the size of the Golgi in fibroblasts from Snell's waltzer mice.

Warner CL, Stewart A, Luzio JP, Steel KP, Libby RT, Kendrick-Jones J, Buss F

The EMBO journal.. 2003 February 322 (3):569-79. Epub 1900 01 01.

Reduced climbing and increased slipping adaptation in cochlear hair cells of mice with Myo7a mutations.

Kros CJ, Marcotti W, van Netten SM, Self TJ, Libby RT, Brown SD, Richardson GP, Steel KP

Nature neuroscience.. 2002 January 5 (1):41-7. Epub 1900 01 01.

Electroretinographic anomalies in mice with mutations in Myo7a, the gene involved in human Usher syndrome type 1B.

Libby RT, Steel KP

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science.. 2001 March 42 (3):770-8. Epub 1900 01 01.

Laminin expression in adult and developing retinae: evidence of two novel CNS laminins.

Libby RT, Champliaud MF, Claudepierre T, Xu Y, Gibbons EP, Koch M, Burgeson RE, Hunter DD, Brunken WJ

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.. 2000 September 120 (17):6517-28. Epub 1900 01 01.

Roles of the extracellular matrix in retinal development and maintenance.

Libby RT, Brunken WJ, Hunter DD

Results and problems in cell differentiation.. 2000 31 :115-40. Epub 1900 01 01.

The roles of unconventional myosins in hearing and deafness.

Libby RT, Steel KP

Essays in biochemistry.. 2000 35 :159-74. Epub 1900 01 01.

Disruption of laminin beta2 chain production causes alterations in morphology and function in the CNS.

Libby RT, Lavallee CR, Balkema GW, Brunken WJ, Hunter DD

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.. 1999 November 119 (21):9399-411. Epub 1900 01 01.

Identification of the cellular source of laminin beta2 in adult and developing vertebrate retinae.

Libby RT, Xu Y, Selfors LM, Brunken WJ, Hunter DD

The Journal of comparative neurology.. 1997 December 29389 (4):655-67. Epub 1900 01 01.

Developmental expression of laminin beta 2 in rat retina. Further support for a role in rod morphogenesis.

Libby RT, Hunter DD, Brunken WJ

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science.. 1996 July 37 (8):1651-61. Epub 1900 01 01.