Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
What is autism spectrum disorder in children?
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a problem that affects a child’s nervous system
and growth and development. It usually shows up during a child’s first 3 years of
Some children with ASD seem to live in their own world. They are not interested in
other children and lack social awareness. A child with ASD focuses on following a
routine that may include usual behaviors. A child with the disorder also often has
problems communicating with others and may not start speaking as soon as other children.
He or she may not want to make eye contact with other people.
ASD can keep a child from developing social skills. This is in part because a child
with ASD may not be able to understand facial expressions or emotions in other people.
A child with ASD may:
- Not want to be touched
- Want to play alone
- Not want to change routines
A child with ASD may also repeat movements. This might be flapping his or her hands
or rocking. He or she may also have unusual attachments to objects. But a child with
ASD may also do certain mental tasks very well. For example, the child may be able
to count or measure better than other children. Children with ASD may do well in art
or music, or be able to remember certain things very well.
What causes ASD in a child?
Researchers don’t know what causes ASD. It may be caused by certain genes. A child
with ASD may also have problems with the structure of the brain or with certain chemicals
in the brain. Researchers do know that ASD is not caused by what a parent does to
raise a child.
Much less commonly, other things that may cause ASD include:
- Being exposed to toxins in the environment before or after birth
- Problems during delivery
- Infections before birth
Which children are at risk for ASD?
The disorder happens much more often in boys than girls. Four to 5 times as many boys
as girls have ASD.
Certain gene disorders that run in families can raise a child’s risk for ASD. These
- Phenylketonuria (PKU)
- Tuberous sclerosis
- Chromosome problems
Your child may need genetic testing to help find out which problem he or she has.
The testing is done by a medical geneticist. This is a healthcare provider with special
training in genes and gene problems. He or she can let you know the chances of having
another child with the gene problem. For example, PKU carries a 1 in 4 chance of happening
in another pregnancy. For tuberous sclerosis, the chances are 1 in 2.
Even when no gene problem is found, you are at a slightly higher chance of having
another child with ASD. Researchers think this is because several genes from both
parents may act together to cause ASD.
What are the symptoms of ASD in a child?
Each child may have slightly different symptoms. Below are the most common symptoms
- Has problems making eye contact with others
- Has problems making friends or interacting with other children
- Does not communicate well with others
- Starts speaking at a later age than other children or doesn’t speak at all
- When the child is able to speak, doesn’t use speech in social interactions
- Repeats words or phrases (echolalia) or repeats parts of dialogue from TV or movies
- Does repeated movements, such as rocking or flapping fingers or hands
- May be too sensitive or less sensitive to certain things around him or her, such as
lights, sounds, touch, or taste
- Has rituals
- Needs routines
The symptoms of ASD may look like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees
his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is ASD diagnosed in a child?
No single medical test can diagnose ASD. Healthcare providers use certain guidelines
to help diagnose ASD in children before age 2. The guidelines can help diagnose the
disorder early. Children diagnosed with ASD early can be treated right away.
The guidelines say that all children should be screened for ASD and other development
disorders before age 2. The screening is done at well-child checkups. Children who
have symptoms of development or behavior disorders will need to get more testing for
Healthcare providers look for the following problems during well-child visits before
- No babbling, pointing, or gesturing by age 12 months
- No single words spoken by age 16 months
- No 2-word phrases by age 24 months, just repeating words or sounds of others
- Loss of any language or social skills at any age
- No eye contact at 3 to 4 months
If a child has any of the above problems, the healthcare provider will do more screening.
This will help show whether your child has ASD or another developmental disorder.
Your child may need to see a healthcare provider with special training to diagnose
and treat ASD. Your child may also need these screening tests:
- Nervous system exam
- Imaging tests such as CT scan, MRI, or PET scan
- Mental health tests
- Genetic tests to look for gene problems that cause ASD or other developmental disorders
How is ASD treated in a child?
Each child with ASD needs his or her own special treatment program. This is because
children with ASD can vary a lot in how much help they need. Programs that work best
are those that are started as early as possible and involve the parents.
Treatment for ASD includes:
- Behavior change programs. These programs teach social skills, movement skills, and thinking (cognitive) skills.
They can help a child change problem behaviors.
- Special education programs. These focus on social skills, speech, language, self-care, and job skills.
- Medicine. Some children need medicine to help treat some of the symptoms of ASD.
Your child and your family may also need to see a mental health provider. This provider
can give you parent counseling, social skills training, and one-on-one therapy. This
provider can also help you find the treatment programs that are best for your child.
How can I help prevent ASD in my child?
Experts don’t know how to prevent ASD in children. They do know that it is not caused by what a parent does to raise a child. Spotting and treating ASD early can
lessen symptoms and enhance your child’s normal development. It can also improve your
child’s quality of life.
How can I help my child live with ASD?
Your child’s primary care provider will play a key role in supporting you and your
child. He or she will help you understand treatment and how to care for your child.
You play a critical part in your child’s treatment and well-being. Here are things
you can do to help your child:
- Keep all appointments with your child’s healthcare provider.
- Talk with your child’s healthcare provider about other providers who will be involved
in your child’s care. Your child may get care from a team that may include neurologists,
speech-language pathologists, occupational and physical therapists, social workers,
psychologists, and psychiatrists. Your child’s care team will depend on your child’s
needs and how serious the ASD is.
- Tell others about your child’s ASD. Work with your child’s healthcare provider and
schools to develop a treatment plan.
- Reach out for support from local community services. ASD can be stressful. Being in
touch with other parents who have a child ASD may be helpful.
Key points about autism spectrum disorder in children
- Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a problem that affects a child’s nervous system
and growth and development.
- A child with ASD often has problems communicating. He or she may have trouble developing
- Genes may play a role in ASD.
- All children should be screened for ASD before age 2.
- Diagnosis may include imaging and genetic tests.
- Children with ASD need a special treatment plan. It may include programs that change
behavior and teach social skills.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child.
Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose
for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important
if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.
Online Medical Reviewers:
- Ballas, Paul, DO
- Nelson, Gail A, MS, APRN, BC
- Watson, L Renee, MSN, RN
We provide many services to support families of children newly diagnosed with ASD and ongoing specialty care. This includes state of the art diagnostic evaluation for children suspected of having an ASD. We also provide resources and information and referral services.
University of Rochester is one of 17 sites of the Autism Treatment Network and has one of the largest research programs on ASD in the United States! Many families of children with ASD choose to participate in research which offers children the opportunity to participate in new treatments.
- Child Neurology - Assures children have the evaluation and treatment they need for seizures or other neurologic issues.
- Pediatric Gastroenterology - Evaluates and offers suggestions for treatment for problems with slow bowel motility, constipation, or gastroesophageal reflux (GER).
- Pediatric Sleep Medicine Service - Evaluates and treats sleep problems.
- Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Provides outpatient evaluation and intense and targeted therapy programs for children and teens. Pediatric physical therapists provide evaluation and treatment of independent daily living skills and equipment needs. Pediatric occupational therapists provide evaluation and treatment of fine motor skills, handwriting, daily living skills, sensory processing, and adaptive equipment needs.
- Speech Pathology Department - Meets the needs of children who have difficulties with speech, communication, oral-motor control, and feeding/swallowing.
Visit the Autism Spectrum Disorder LibGuide for resources.