Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
What is autism spectrum disorder?
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a problem that affects a child’s nervous system
and growth and development. It usually shows up during a child’s first 3 years of
life. Some children with ASD seem to live in their own world. They are not interested
in other children and lack social awareness. A child with ASD focuses on following
a routine that may include usual behaviors. A child with the disorder also often has
problems communicating with others and may not start speaking as soon as other children.
He or she may not want to make eye contact with other people.
ASD can keep a child from developing social skills. This is in part because a child
with ASD may not be able to interpret facial expressions or emotions in other people.
A child with ASD may:
A child with ASD may also repeat movements. This might be flapping his or her hands
or rocking. He or she may also have unusual attachments to objects. But a child with
ASD may also do certain mental tasks very well. For example, the child may be able
to count or measure better than other children. Children with ASD may do well in art
or music, or be able to remember certain things very well.
What causes ASD?
Researchers don’t know what causes ASD. It may be caused by certain genes. A child
with ASD may also have problems with the structure of the brain or with certain chemicals
in the brain. Researchers do know that ASD is not caused by what a parent does to raise a child.
Who is affected by ASD?
About 1 in 68 children in the U.S. has an autism spectrum disorder, according to the
CDC. The disorder happens much more often in boys than girls. Four to 5 times as many
boys as girls have ASD.
What are the symptoms of ASD?
Each child may have slightly different symptoms, but below are the most common symptoms
Does not communicate well with others
Starts speaking at a later age than other children or doesn’t speak at all
When the child is able to speak, doesn’t use speech in social interactions
Repeats words or phrases (echolalia) or repeats parts of dialogue from TV or movies
Does repeated movements such as rocking or flapping fingers or hands
May be too sensitive to certain things around him or her, such as lights, sounds,
touch, or taste. Or the child may be less sensitive to these things than other children.
The symptoms of ASD may look like other health conditions. Be sure your child sees
his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is ASD diagnosed?
There is no single medical test for ASD. Healthcare providers use certain guidelines
to help diagnose ASD in children before age 2. In the past, doctors often did not
diagnose the disorder until a child was late preschool-age or older. The guidelines
can help diagnose the disorder early. Children diagnosed with ASD early can be treated
The guidelines say that all children should be screened for ASD and other development
disorders before age 2. The screening is done at well-child checkups. Children who
have symptoms of development or behavior disorders will need to get additional testing
Healthcare providers look for the following problems during well-child visits before
No babbling, pointing, or gesturing by age 12 months
No single words spoken by age 16 months
No 2-word phrases by age 24 months. These phrases aren’t just repeating words or sounds
Loss of any language or social skills at any age
No eye contact at 3 to 4 months
If a child has any of the above problems, the healthcare provider will do more screening.
This will help show whether your child has ASD or another developmental disorder.
Your child may need to see a doctor with special training to diagnose and treat ASD.
Your child may also need these screening tests:
Nervous system exam
Genetic tests, to look for gene problems that cause ASD or other developmental disorders
Imaging tests such as CT scan, MRI, or PET scan
ASD may be caused by several gene problems that can be passed down through families.
Your child may need genetic testing to help find out which problem he or she has.
The testing is done by a medical geneticist. This is a healthcare provider with special
training in genes and gene problems.
ASD may be caused by these gene disorders that can run in families:
The healthcare specialist can let you know the chances of having another child with
the gene problem. For example, PKU carries a 1 in 4 chance of happening in another
pregnancy. For tuberous sclerosis, the chances are 1 in 2.
Even when no gene problem is found, you are at a slightly higher chance of having
another child with ASD. Researchers think this is because several genes from both
parents may act together to cause ASD.
How is ASD treated?
ASD can be treated with behavior change and special education programs. Behavior change
programs teach social skills, movement skills, and thinking (cognitive) skills. These
programs can help a child change problem behaviors. Special education programs focus
on social skills, speech, language, self-care, and job skills.
Each child with ASD needs his or her own special treatment program. This is because
children with ASD can vary a lot in how much help they need. Programs that work best
are those that are started as early as possible and involve the parents.
Your child may also need medicine to help treat some of the symptoms of ASD.
Your child and your family may also need to see a mental health provider. This provider
can give you parent counseling, social skills training, and one-on-one therapy. This
provider can also help you find the treatment programs that are best for your child.
Online Medical Reviewers:
- Ballas, Paul, DO
- Nelson, Gail A., MS, APRN, BC
We provide many services to support families of children newly diagnosed with ASD and ongoing specialty care. This includes state of the art diagnostic evaluation for children suspected of having an ASD. We also provide resources and information and referral services.
University of Rochester is one of 17 sites of the Autism Treatment Network and has one of the largest research programs on ASD in the United States! Many families of children with ASD choose to participate in research which offers children the opportunity to participate in new treatments.
- Child Neurology - Assures children have the evaluation and treatment they need for seizures or other neurologic issues.
- Pediatric Gastroenterology - Evaluates and offers suggestions for treatment for problems with slow bowel motility, constipation, or gastroesophageal reflux (GER).
- Pediatric Sleep Medicine Service - Evaluates and treats sleep problems.
- Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Provides outpatient evaluation and intense and targeted therapy programs for children and teens. Pediatric physical therapists provide evaluation and treatment of independent daily living skills and equipment needs. Pediatric occupational therapists provide evaluation and treatment of fine motor skills, handwriting, daily living skills, sensory processing, and adaptive equipment needs.
- Speech Pathology Department - Meets the needs of children who have difficulties with speech, communication, oral-motor control, and feeding/swallowing.
Visit the Autism Spectrum Disorder LibGuide for resources.