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Shubing Cai, Ph.D.

Journal Articles

Rahman M, Grabowski DC, Intrator O, Cai S, Mor V. "Serious mental illness and nursing home quality of care." Health services research.. 2013 Aug 0; 48(4):1279-98. Epub 2012 Dec 26.

Cai S, Rahman M, Intrator O. "Obesity and pressure ulcers among nursing home residents." Medical care.. 2013 Jun 0; 51(6):478-86.

Berry SD, Lee Y, Cai S, Dore DD. "Nonbenzodiazepine sleep medication use and hip fractures in nursing home residents." JAMA internal medicine. 2013 May 13; 173(9):754-61.

Cai S, Gozalo PL, Mitchell SL, Kuo S, Bynum JP, Mor V, Teno JM. "Do patients with advanced cognitive impairment admitted to hospitals with higher rates of feeding tube insertion have improved survival?" Journal of pain and symptom management.. 2013 Mar 0; 45(3):524-33. Epub 2012 Aug 04.

Temkin-Greener H, Cai S, Zheng NT, Zhao H, Mukamel DB. "Nursing home work environment and the risk of pressure ulcers and incontinence." Health services research.. 2012 Jun 0; 47(3 Pt 1):1179-200. Epub 2011 Nov 18.

Bentkover J, Cai S, Makineni R, Mucha L, Treglia M, Mor V. "Road to the nursing home: costs and disease progression among medicare beneficiaries with ADRD." American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.. 2012 Mar 0; 27(2):90-9.

Zheng NT, Mukamel DB, Caprio T, Cai S, Temkin-Greener H. "Racial disparities in in-hospital death and hospice use among nursing home residents at the end of life." Medical care.. 2011 Nov 0; 49(11):992-8.

Shubing Cai , Mukamel DB, Veazie P, Katz P, Temkin-Greener H. "Hospitalizations in nursing homes: does payer source matter? Evidence from New York State." Medical care research and review : MCRR.. 2011 Oct 0; 68(5):559-78. Epub 2011 Apr 07.

Cai S, Feng Z, Fennell ML, Mor V. "Despite small improvement, black nursing home residents remain less likely than whites to receive flu vaccine." Health affairs.. 2011 Oct 0; 30(10):1939-46.

Cai S, Temkin-Greener H. "Influenza vaccination and its impact on hospitalization events in nursing homes." Journal of the American Medical Directors Association.. 2011 Sep 0; 12(7):493-8. Epub 2010 Oct 02.

Aschbrenner KA, Cai S, Grabowski DC, Bartels SJ, Mor V. "Medical comorbidity and functional status among adults with major mental illness newly admitted to nursing homes." Psychiatric services : a journal of the American Psychiatric Association.. 2011 Sep 0; 62(9):1098-100.

Mor V, Intrator O, Unruh MA, Cai S. "Temporal and Geographic variation in the validity and internal consistency of the Nursing Home Resident Assessment Minimum Data Set 2.0." BMC health services research.. 2011 Apr 15; 11:78. Epub 2011 Apr 15.

Cai S, Mukamel DB, Veazie P, Temkin-Greener H. "Validation of the Minimum Data Set in identifying hospitalization events and payment source." Journal of the American Medical Directors Association.. 2011 Jan 0; 12(1):38-43. Epub 2010 Aug 07.

Aschbrenner K, Grabowski DC, Cai S, Bartels SJ, Mor V. "Nursing home admissions and long-stay conversions among persons with and without serious mental illness." Journal of aging & social policy.. 2011 23(3):286-304.

Temkin-Greener H, Zheng NT, Cai S, Zhao H, Mukamel DB. "Nursing home environment and organizational performance: association with deficiency citations." Medical care.. 2010 Apr 0; 48(4):357-64.

Cai S, Mukamel DB, Temkin-Greener H. "Pressure ulcer prevalence among black and white nursing home residents in New York state: evidence of racial disparity?" Medical care.. 2010 Mar 0; 48(3):233-9.

Mukamel DB, Cai S, Temkin-Greener H. "Cost implications of organizing nursing home workforce in teams." Health services research.. 2009 Aug 0; 44(4):1309-25. Epub 2009 May 26.

Temkin-Greener H, Cai S, Katz P, Zhao H, Mukamel DB. "Daily practice teams in nursing homes: evidence from New York state." The Gerontologist.. 2009 Feb 0; 49(1):68-80. Epub 2009 Mar 18.

Veazie PJ, Cai S. "A connection between medication adherence, patient sense of uniqueness, and the personalization of information." Medical hypotheses.. 2007 68(2):335-42. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

Tyler, DA, Cai, S, Feng, Z, Clark, MA, Fennell, MF. "The effect of racial diversity on social engagement among nursing home residents." Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences. .

Dosa,D., Cai,S., Hyde, S., Thomas, K. , Intrator, O. "Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use among Veterans Residing in Community Living Centers: Have we gotten better?" . JAGS. .

Elaine L. Hill, Ph.D.


As an applied microeconomist, Dr. Hill's primary research interests are in health economics and environmental economics. In particular, her research focuses on the intersection between health, health policy, the environment and human capital formation. The unifying theme within these broad areas is the use of quasi-experimental designs to identify modifiable factors that are policy relevant. Her research also primarily studies vulnerable populations (e.g., pregnant women, children, rural populations, and older adults).

Dr. Hill is currently actively pursuing three distinct research directions. First, her NIH-funded research utilizes quasi-experimental methods to study the impacts of shale gas development on human health in the US. Through support from a DP5 award, Dr. Hill's team has studied the impacts of shale gas development on childhood asthma, drinking water contamination and environmental justice concerns as well as the economic consequences of this industry via hedonic models. Second, Dr. Hill is PI of an NCI-funded R01 equivalent grant studying drug shortages in oncology care and Co-I with the University of Rochester NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Research Base which is directed by Drs. Gary Morrow and Karen Mustian. Third, she is examining public policies and health system factors that influence the opioid crisis. Within this emerging area, Dr. Hill is studying opioid-related mortality, opioid use during pregnancy and access to treatment.

Dr. Hill is a recipient of the NIH Director's Early Independence Award. She is also affiliated with Wilmot Cancer Institute, the Goergen Institute for Data Science, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, and the Center for Energy and Environment and maintains courtesy faculty positions at external institutions. Dr. Hill received her BA in Economics and Mathematics at Oberlin College in 2005 and her PhD in Applied Economics from Cornell University in 2014.

Orna Intrator, Ph.D.


Trained in statistics and applied mathematics, Dr. Intrator is an Professor of Health Services Research and Policy at the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY and Adjunct Professor at the Brown University School of Medicine in Providence, RI. Dr. Intrator also works as Research Health Scientist and the Director of the national VA Geriatrics & Extended Care Data Analysis Center (GECDAC).

Dr. Intrator has published over 100 peer-reviewed articles in leading health services and health policy journals such as Health Affairs, Medical Care Research and Review, Medical care, Health Services Research, and has been cited more than 2500 times. Her excellent work has brought her multiple awards, including Best of AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting (2015), Outstanding Medical Care Reviewer (2008–2011), Outstanding Abstract of the Annual Meeting of the Health Services Research (2004) and others. Her outstanding contribution to the health services research community is exemplified by her authoritative reviews including one published by HSR as an example to authors (2005). Dr. Intrator's work has been funded by grants from the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, National Institute on Aging (NIA), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the Israeli National Science Foundation, and the Israel National Institute for Health Care Policy and Research.

Dr. Intrator has been studying the effect of nursing homes' organizational characteristics (Intrator 2005, Intrator 2014), markets and states' Medicaid policies on hospitalizations from nursing homes (Intrator 2004, Intrator 2007 ). She and colleagues developed the Residential History File that summarizes information from Medicare claims and nursing home (NH) Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments to provide a daily tracking of individuals through their health care locations, including non-Medicare-paid NH stays. More recently, she evaluated the impact of state policies on nurse practitioner and physician assistant scope of practice on their availability and visits in nursing homes. Another paper examined the impact of state spending on home and community based services on nursing home admissions.

Dr. Intrator's VA research focuses on Veteran's use of nursing homes and health care programs in the community across health care systems (VA, Medicare and Medicaid) and the quality of care delivered, with particular attention to the implications for health policies and organizational management. Dr. Intrator is currently examining the system-wide impact of provision of personal care services, GeriPACT and Home Based Primary Care. Since 2012, Dr. Intrator has been developing GECDAC as a data and analytic resource to the VA Center Office of Geriatrics & Extended Care (GEC), developing measures and standardized datasets, conducting evaluations, as well as enriching the community of researchers by providing access to many of these resources. In developing the GECDAC data infrastructure, Dr. Intrator extended the Residential History File (RHF) methodology to include input from VA provided or paid utilization in addition to Medicare and Medicaid claims and nursing home resident assessments. The RHF provides a daily tracking of individuals through their health care locations allowing for example, the identification of site of death and adjudicating overlapping services data. The RHF has been used in many studies.

Yue Li, Ph.D.


Dr. Li is a tenured Professor and an experienced health services researcher with major focuses on Medicare policy and quality of hospital and long-term care. His current research includes: 1) Quality and outcome assessment for hospital and long-term care; 2) Impact of Medicare payment reforms such as bundled payments on health care quality; and 3) disparities in quality of health care.

Dr. Li is currently leading two R01 grants as PI. The first project is funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and is designed to identify those aspects of state regulatory and payment policies that may foster or prevent the development of nursing home patient safety culture. The second project, funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), aims to use big data and statistical machine learning methods to analyze the violent death data and medical records of patients from the CDC and the CMS, in order to identify the risk and protective factors for suicide deaths among older adults in long-term care settings.

He also collaborates as co-investigator on several other federally funded research projects including 1) a funded project that aims to determine the effect of the CJR (Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement) model on racial and SES disparities in the utilization and outcomes of lower extremity joint replacement procedures (R01MD012422; PI: Caroline Thirukumaran); 2) another project that tests the impact of state regulations on safety culture and safety outcomes in assisted living residences (R01HS026893; PI: Helena Tempkin-Greener); and 3) a more recent project designed to focus on Medicare ACOs (accountable care organizations) and their impact on surgical outcomes and post-acute care use.

For Dr. Li's past research activities, please go to

Reza Yousefi Nooraie, M.Sc., Ph.D.


Reza's main line of interest includes the application of a social network analysis lens to inform and promote the process of knowledge translation and program implementation ( He is especially interested in designing network-informed and network-rewiring interventions, and studying networks as the outcome of the implementation. He has applied network analysis in various contexts including co-authorship, information seeking and influential discussions in health care settings, and partnerships among health organizations.

He is also interested in mixed methods studies, and the dialogue between quantitative and qualitative approaches, and how this dialogue can deepen our understanding of social structures and interpersonal relations.

Helena Temkin-Greener, Ph.D., M.S.

Research Interests & Activities

Dr. Temkin-Greener's research is focused in the following areas: 1) Quality of care - developing outcome measures and assessing quality of care in community-based, hospital and long-term care settings; 2) Organizational performance - developing and validating measures of care process, teamwork, and patient safety culture; 3) Aging and Long-term Care - assessing the impact of individual and organizational risk factors on quality of care for vulnerable elderly, including disparities; 4) Palliative and end-of-life care - design, implementation and evaluation of interventions to improve care; 5) Mental illness - understanding access to and quality of care for patients with dementia and other mental health disorders.

Dr. Temkin-Greener has served as Principal Investigator (PI) on a number of NIH-funded studies, as well as studies and demonstration projects funded by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), the John A. Hartford Foundation of New York City, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Donaghue Medical Foundation, and others. She is currently the PI of a four-year study funded by the AHRQ to study patient safety culture and outcomes in Assisted Living communities. She is also a co-investigator on studies funded by the NIH, VA, and the AHRQ.

Dr. Temkin-Greener is the founder and director of the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) Data Analysis Center (PDAC), which receives data from the 120+ PACE organizations nationally. PDAC analyzes the impact of Medicare risk-adjusted payment models as well as focuses on PACE program outcomes.

Peter J. Veazie, Ph.D.

Research Interests

Dr. Veazie's primary interests are the decision behavior of health care providers and patients, the consequent health outcomes, and the influence of social and organizational systems on such behavior and outcomes. He is specifically interested in the structuring and use of information by patients and providers, the impact of psychological disposition and states on health care decisions, the decision strategies of healthcare providers in the management of patients with chronic illnesses, the physician/patient interaction, and how physician decision processes can lead to medical errors.

Research Activities

Dr. Veazie is presently studying (1) physician use of racial information in diagnosis and treatment decisions, and (2) the effect on patient risk perceptions of various graphical representations of very low level risks.