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New Issue of Opportunities to Explore - October 16-20, 2017

Monday, October 16, 2017

The Week of Undergraduate research day is here! But before you get to that always awesome event on Friday, make sure you check out the other events happening this week and fill up your calendar with all the other things we have planned, by taking a look at the latest issue of Opportunities to Explore!

Opportunities to Explore - Latest Issue

New Issue of Opportunities to Explore - October 9-13, 2017

Friday, October 6, 2017

The latest Opportunities to Explore are available! Feel free to browse the numerous events we have coming up for Graduate Students and Postdocs...

October 2-6 Issue of Opportunities To Explore

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Study Will Explore Link Between HIV, Micro-Strokes, and Dementia

Monday, October 2, 2017

New research will seek to understand why people who are HIV positive are more susceptible to a progressive cerebrovascular disease that can ultimately give rise to dementia. One of the goals of the research is to identify new ways to prevent the blockages that occur in blood vessels and cause damage in the brain.

The $3.6 million National Institute of Aging-sponsored study will be led by University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) neurologist Giovanni Schifitto, M.D., M.S., and Sanjay B. Maggirwar, M.B.A., Ph.D., with the Department of Microbiology and Immunology.

While it is estimated that more than 1 million Americans are living with HIV, treatments such as combined anti-retroviral therapies (cART) have transformed the disease into a manageable chronic illness. However, as the population living with HIV ages, the long-term effects of both the infection and treatment have given rise to additional health problems.

One such problem is cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). While the reason CSVD occurs is not clear and may ultimately be the result of a number of factors, a common mechanism is believed to be inflammation. The new study will examine the interaction of two types of blood cells – platelets and monocytes. When these cells become stuck together and form complexes the resulting blockages can lead to a hardening of the arteries.

The brain in particular is highly susceptible to damage when blood flow becomes impaired due its network of tiny vessels. When complexes of platelets and monocytes accumulate in the brain they can promote inflammation which can cause vessels to become leaky, plugged, or burst, resulting in micro-strokes or micro-hemorrhages that damage neurons and other tissue in the brain.

"Read More: Study Will Explore Link Between HIV, Micro-Strokes, and Dementia

New Issue of Opportunities to Explore - October 2-6, 2017

Friday, September 29, 2017

The latest Opportunities to Explore are available! Feel free to browse the numerous events we have coming up for Graduate Students and Postdocs...

October 2-6 Issue of Opportunities To Explore

University Research Awards span a wide range of topics

Wednesday, May 31, 2017

The awards, originally called Provost’s Multidisciplinary Awards, are funded $250,000 every year by the president and matched by the schools for a total of $500,000 annually. They are designed to help researchers advance promising lines of research so that they can obtain external funding."Read More: University Research Awards span a wide range of topics

Scientists Light the Way for Immune System to Attack Cancer

Monday, May 15, 2017

Photo of Dr. Minsoo Kim

The science behind harnessing the immune system to fight cancer is complicated, but a University of Rochester Medical Center laboratory discovered a simple, practical way to use light and optics to steer killer immune cells toward tumors.

In a study published by the online journal Nature Communications, lead author Minsoo Kim, Ph.D., a UR professor of Microbiology and Immunology and a Wilmot Cancer Institute investigator, described his method as similar to “sending light on a spy mission to track down cancer cells.”

Immunotherapy is different from radiation or chemotherapy. Instead of directly killing cancer cells, immunotherapy tells the immune system to act in certain ways by stimulating T cells to attack the disease. Several different types of immunotherapy exist or are in development, including pills called “checkpoint inhibitors” and CAR T-cell therapy that involves removing a patient’s own immune cells and altering them genetically to seek and destroy cancer cells.

The problem, however, is that immunotherapy can cause the immune system to overreact or under-react, Kim said. In addition, cancer cells are evasive and can hide from killer T-cells. Aggressive tumors also suppress the immune system in the areas surrounding the malignancy (called the microenvironment), keeping T cells out.

Read More: Scientists Light the Way for Immune System to Attack Cancer

Federal funding bill boosts support for research, education, health care, and arts

Tuesday, May 9, 2017

Congress has approved legislation which will fund the government through September 30, the end of the 2017 fiscal year. The legislation, which the President has signed into law, has received bipartisan support and in many cases contains welcome increases in funding for federal programs – including research, student aid, health care, and the arts and humanities – that are important to the University.Read More: Federal funding bill boosts support for research, education, health care, and arts

Eric Franklin, Class of 2017, Receives the Ayman Amin-Salem Memorial Fund Award

Friday, May 5, 2017

photo of Eric FranklinCongratulations from the Department of Microbiology to Eric Franklin, class of 2017, for receiving the Ayman Amin-Salem memorial Fund Award. Ayman was a student in the Class of '87 who died in a car accident. His family established this fund in his memory. The prize is given to members of the senior class who best evidences the qualities of good character and good citizenship, such as decency, reliability, responsibility, and congeniality.

Center for AIDS Research Announces Pilot Opportunities

Thursday, April 13, 2017

The University’s Center for AIDS Research announces three new CFAR pilot opportunities. Contact Laura Enders with questions.Read More: Center for AIDS Research Announces Pilot Opportunities

Scientists develop new flu vaccines for dogs

Monday, January 30, 2017

Scientists at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry have developed, for the first time, two new vaccines for canine influenza. This research is not only important for improving the health of our furry friends, but for keeping us safe, too. Dogs that have been infected with multiple influenza viruses have the potential to act as "mixing vessels" and generate new flu strains that could infect people. This hasn't happened yet, but experts say it's possible.

Today, veterinarians use vaccines that include inactivated or killed flu virus, but experts say they provide short-term, limited protection. Scientists led by Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Ph.D., associate professor in the department of Microbiology and Immunology created two "live-attenuated" vaccines against H3N8 canine influenza virus, which is currently circulating in dogs in the U.S. Past research shows that live-attenuated vaccines, made from live flu virus that is dampened down so that it doesn't cause the flu, provide better immune responses and longer periods of protection.

Read More: Scientists develop new flu vaccines for dogs

URMC Drug Extends Effectiveness of HIV Therapy

Monday, January 30, 2017

Major Step toward Longer-Lasting HIV Treatment

Image of hand stating Stop HIV

A drug developed at the University of Rochester Medical Center extends the effectiveness of multiple HIV therapies by unleashing a cell’s own protective machinery on the virus. The finding, published today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, is an important step toward the creation of long-acting HIV drugs that could be administered once or twice per year, in contrast to current HIV treatments that must be taken daily.

The drug, called URMC-099, was developed in the laboratory of UR scientist Harris A. (“Handy”) Gelbard, M.D., Ph.D. When combined with “nanoformulated” versions of two commonly used anti-HIV drugs (also called antiretroviral drugs), URMC-099 lifts the brakes on a process called autophagy.

Normally, autophagy allows cells to get rid of intracellular “trash,” including invading viruses. In HIV infection, the virus prevents cells from turning on autophagy; one of the many tricks it uses to survive. When the brake on autophagy is lifted, cells are able to digest any virus that remains after treatment with antiretroviral therapy, leaving cells free of virus for extended periods of time.

Photo of Dr. Gelbard

Harris A. (“Handy”) Gelbard, M.D., Ph.D.

“This study shows that URMC-099 has the potential to reduce the frequency of HIV therapy, which would eliminate the burden of daily treatment, greatly increase compliance and help people better manage the disease,” said Gelbard, professor and director of UR’s Center for Neural Development and Disease, who has studied HIV/AIDS for the past 25 years. The finding builds on previous research that Gelbard conducted with Howard E. Gendelman, M.D., professor and chair of the Department of Pharmacology/Experimental Neuroscience at the University of Nebraska Medical Center.

Read More: URMC Drug Extends Effectiveness of HIV Therapy

Scientists Develop New Flu Vaccines for Man’s Best Friend

Thursday, January 19, 2017

It's that dreaded time of year – flu season. And we humans aren't the only ones feeling the pain. Dogs can get the flu, too.

Scientists at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry have developed, for the first time, two new vaccines for canine influenza. This research is not only important for improving the health of our furry friends, but for keeping us safe, too. Dogs that have been infected with multiple influenza viruses have the potential to act as “mixing vessels” and generate new flu strains that could infect people. This hasn't happened yet, but experts say it's possible.

Today, veterinarians use vaccines that include inactivated or killed flu virus, but experts say they provide short-term, limited protection. Scientists led by Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Ph.D., associate professor in the department of Microbiology and Immunology created two "live-attenuated" vaccines against H3N8 canine influenza virus, which is currently circulating in dogs in the U.S. Past research shows that live-attenuated vaccines, made from live flu virus that is dampened down so that it doesn't cause the flu, provide better immune responses and longer periods of protection.

Read More: Scientists Develop New Flu Vaccines for Man’s Best Friend