Does this test have other names?
Tay-Sachs carrier screening, Tay-Sachs prenatal testing, Tay-Sachs disease DNA analysis
What is this test?
This test looks for specific gene changes in a sample of your blood. If you are already
pregnant, the test looks at a sample of the fetus' blood. These gene changes (mutations)
cause most cases of Tay-Sachs disease.
Tay-Sachs disease is caused by a lack of a vital enzyme, Hex A (hexosaminidase-A).
This can cause a fatty substance called GM2 ganglioside to build up in cells, especially
in brain cells.
Symptoms of the disease start when the child is a baby. Babies who have Tay-Sachs
develop trouble moving, seizures, and blindness. Children with the disease typically
die before age 5. There is no cure or effective treatment for Tay-Sachs disease.
This DNA test can find out whether parents or potential parents are carriers of the
disease. It can also be used to see if a fetus has the condition.
Anyone can be a carrier, but the disease is more common in people of Eastern European
Jewish (Ashkenazi) descent. This means they have gene mutations that can cause the
disease in a child. About one in 27 American Jews is a carrier. If both parents are
carriers, a child has a 1 in 4 chance of getting the disease. The child has a 1 in
2 chance of being a carrier. Carriers do not have symptoms of the disease. Carriers can
pass the defective gene to their own children.
This DNA test checks for 3 or more specific gene changes. Testing can identify nearly
Before having this test, discuss your family background with your healthcare provider
or a genetic counselor. This will help find out which type of testing you and your
partner should have.
Why do I need this test?
You may have this test to check whether you are a Tay-Sachs carrier. If you are pregnant,
both you and your partner can be tested. If both you and your partner are known carriers,
DNA testing can diagnose Tay-Sachs disease in the fetus.
What other tests might I have along with this test?
Your healthcare provider may also order blood tests to measure Hex A and Hex B enzymes. These tests find
out whether you are a carrier.
Your provider may also order screening for cystic fibrosis, Canavan disease, and familial
dysautonomia. This is especially true if you are of Ashkenazi Jewish descent.
If you are not of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, your healthcare provider may also order
a screening test for an additional DNA mutation that has been linked to Tay-Sachs
in other groups.
What do my test results mean?
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses
to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you
may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your healthcare
Normal results are negative. This means no gene mutations were found. It means you
aren't a carrier for Tay-Sachs disease. A positive result means that the gene mutations
were found and that you are a carrier.
Normal results for prenatal testing are negative. This means no gene mutations were
found. It means your fetus does not have Tay-Sachs disease. A positive result means
that the gene mutations have been found and that your fetus does have the disease.
A genetic counselor or your healthcare provider can discuss what these results mean
for you and your child.
How is this test done?
For carrier screening, the test requires a blood sample, which is drawn through a
needle from a vein in your arm.
Testing the fetus during pregnancy requires one of these procedures:
Does this test pose any risks?
Taking a blood sample with a needle carries risks that include bleeding, infection,
bruising, or feeling dizzy. When the needle pricks your arm, you may feel a slight
stinging sensation or pain. Afterward, the site may be slightly sore.
Risks from amniocentesis include:
Cramping and vaginal bleeding
Amniotic fluid leakage
Infections such as hepatitis or HIV spreading from you to your fetus
Slight risk of miscarriage
Risks from chorionic villus sampling include:
What might affect my test results?
The test is not 100% accurate, so you may have a false-negative result. This means
you are a carrier even though the test results came back negative.
How do I get ready for this test?
You don't need to prepare for the blood test. If you are having an amniocentesis or
chorionic villus sampling procedure, you may need to avoid sex or exercise on the
day of the test.