Lung Cancer: Overview
What is lung cancer?
Cancer starts when cells change (mutate) and grow out of control. The changed (abnormal)
cells often grow to form a lump or mass called a tumor. Cancer cells can also grow
into (invade) nearby areas. They can spread to other parts of the body, too. This
is called metastasis.
Lung cancer is cancer that starts in the cells that make up the lungs. The lungs are
sponge-like organs in your chest. Their job is to bring oxygen into the body and to
get rid of carbon dioxide. When you breathe air in, it goes into your lungs through
your windpipe (trachea).
Lung cancer is divided into 2 main types:
Non-small cell lung cancer. Most lung cancers are non-small cell. They're named for how cancer cells look under
a microscope. There are a few different types, such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma,
and large cell carcinoma.
Small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer is less common than non-small cell lung cancer. Small cell
cancer is sometimes called oat cell cancer. This is because the cancer cells are shaped
like oats when looked at under a microscope. This type of lung cancer may grow and
spread faster than non-small cell cancer.
Who is at risk for lung cancer?
A risk factor is anything that may increase your chance of having a disease. The exact
cause of someone’s cancer may not be known. But risk factors can make it more likely
for a person to have cancer. Some risk factors may not be in your control. But others
may be things you can change.
The risk factors for lung cancer include:
Exposure to secondhand smoke
Exposure to radon
Exposure to asbestos and other chemicals, such as arsenic and coal products
Radiation therapy to the chest
Personal history of lung cancer
Family history of lung cancer
Talk with your healthcare provider about your risk factors for lung cancer and what
you can do about them.
Can lung cancer be prevented?
There is no sure way to prevent all lungs cancers. But you may be able to help lower
your risk for it by:
Not smoking or quitting, if you do smoke
Staying away from other people's smoke
Having your home tested for radon
Limiting your exposure to chemicals that can cause lung cancer, such as diesel exhaust
Eating a healthy diet with lots of fruits and vegetables
Are there screening tests for lung cancer?
Lung cancer might be found with a screening test. Screening means checking for a health
problem before a person has symptoms. It may help find some types of cancer early,
when they’re small and often easier to treat.
The screening test used for lung cancer is a low-dose or spiral CT scan. Talk with
your healthcare provider to decide if screening is right for you.
What are the symptoms of lung cancer?
Lung cancer often does not cause symptoms in its early stages. This is when it’s small
and hasn’t spread. In fact, many lung cancers don’t cause symptoms until they have
When early lung cancer does cause symptoms, they’re often like those you might have
if you smoke. For instance, some early symptoms of lung cancer include shortness of
breath and coughing.
These are some of the more common symptoms of lung cancer:
Cough that doesn’t go away or gets worse over time
Chest pain, which might be worse when coughing or taking a deep breath
Coughing up blood or rust-colored mucus
Shortness of breath
Unexpected weight loss
Feeling tired or weak
Pneumonia or bronchitis occurring more than usual for you
Swelling in the face or neck
Many of these may be caused by other health problems. But it’s important to see your
healthcare provider if you have these symptoms. Only a healthcare provider can tell
if you have cancer.
How is lung cancer diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will ask you about your health history, your symptoms, risk
factors, and family history of disease. A physical exam will be done. If your healthcare
provider thinks you may have lung cancer, you will need certain exams and tests to
A biopsy is the only way to tell for sure if you have cancer. Small pieces of tissue
are taken out from the tumor and tested for cancer cells. Tests are also done to find
out exactly what kind of lung cancer you have.
Your healthcare provider may do a bronchoscopy. This is when a narrow tube-like scope
with a light on the end is put in through your mouth and advanced into your lung.
A piece of tissue can be taken out through the scope. A needle biopsy can also be
done to get a biopsy tissue sample. To do this, a needle is put through the skin on
your chest and advanced into the tumor. A syringe is then used to pull out cells.
Your results will come back in about 1 week.
After a diagnosis of lung cancer, you’ll likely need more tests. These help your healthcare
providers learn more about your overall health and the cancer. They're used to find
out the stage of the cancer. The stage is how much cancer there is and how far it
has spread (metastasized) in your body. It's one of the most important things to know
when deciding how to treat the cancer.
Once your cancer is staged, your healthcare provider will talk with you about what
this means for your treatment. Ask your provider to explain the details of your cancer
to you in a way you can understand.
How is lung cancer treated?
Your treatment choices depend on the type of lung cancer you have, test results, and
the stage of the cancer. The goal of treatment may be to cure you, control the cancer,
or help ease problems caused by the cancer. Talk with your healthcare team about your
treatment choices, the goals of treatment, and what the risks and side effects may
be. Other things to think about are if the cancer can be removed with surgery and
your overall health.
Types of treatment for cancer are either local or systemic. Local treatments remove,
destroy, or control cancer cells in one area. Surgery and radiation are local treatments.
Systemic treatment is used to destroy or control cancer cells that may have traveled
around your body. When taken by pill or injection, chemotherapy and immunotherapy
are systemic treatments. You may have just one treatment or a combination of treatments.
Talk with your healthcare providers about your treatment options. Make a list of questions.
Think about the benefits and possible side effects of each option. Talk about your
concerns with your provider before making a decision.
What are treatment side effects?
Cancer treatment such as chemotherapy and radiation can damage normal cells. This
can cause side effects like hair loss, mouth sores, and vomiting. Talk with your healthcare
provider about side effects linked to your treatment. There are often ways to manage
them. There may be things you can do and medicines you can take to help prevent or
control many treatment side effects.
Coping with lung cancer
Many people feel worried, depressed, and stressed when dealing with cancer. Getting
treatment for cancer can be tough on the mind and body. Keep talking with your healthcare
team about ways to make the process easier. Work together to ease the effect of cancer
and its symptoms on your daily life.
Here are tips:
Talk with your family or friends.
Ask your healthcare team or social worker for help.
Speak with a counselor.
Talk with a spiritual advisor, such as a minister or rabbi.
Ask your healthcare team about medicines for depression or anxiety.
Keep socially active.
Join a cancer support group.
Cancer treatment is also hard on the body. To help yourself stay healthier, try to:
Eat a healthy diet, with as many protein foods as possible.
Drink plenty of water, fruit juices, and other liquids.
Keep physically active.
Rest as much as needed.
Talk with your healthcare team about ways to manage treatment side effects.
Take your medicines as directed by your team.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Your healthcare provider will talk with you about when to call. You may be told to
call if you have any of the below:
New symptoms or symptoms that get worse
Signs of an infection, such as a fever
Side effects of treatment that affect your daily function or don’t get better with
Ask your healthcare provider what signs to watch for and when to call. Know how to
get help after office hours and on weekends and holidays.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
know what the side effects are.
Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.