Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
What is generalized anxiety disorder?
If you tend to worry a lot, even when there’s no reason, you may have generalized
anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD means that you are worrying constantly and can’t control
the worrying. Healthcare providers diagnose GAD when your worrying happens on most
days and for at least 6 months.
Worrying may be something you are so used to, you may think it’s just “how you are.”
Common worries include your health, money, family, or work. While everyone worries
about these things once in awhile, if you always expect the worst, it can get in the
way of living a normal life.
If you have GAD, you may also have another mental health condition such as depression.
What causes GAD?
GAD can develop when you can’t cope well with your internal stress. It also runs in
families, but it’s not understood why some people get it and others don’t. Researchers
have shown that the areas of the brain that control fear and anxiety are involved.
The symptoms of GAD can happen as a side effect of a medicine or substance abuse.
It can also be related to medical conditions, such as hyperthyroidism, that increase
hormones. This can make the body response more excitable. GAD can be triggered by
family or environmental stress. Chronic illness and disease can also trigger GAD.
What are the symptoms of GAD?
If you have GAD, you likely know that your anxiety is more intense than the situation
calls for, but still you can’t stop these unfounded concerns. While each person may
experience symptoms differently, the following are the most common symptoms:
- Trouble falling or staying asleep
- Tense muscles
- Hot flashes
- Trouble breathing
- Urinating often
- Lump in the throat
- Poor concentration
- Being easily startled
- Unable to relax
The symptoms of GAD may look like other mental health conditions. Always see your healthcare
provider for a diagnosis.
GAD begins gradually, usually in childhood or adolescence, but can begin in adulthood,
too. It is more common in women. It often runs in families.
How is GAD diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider or mental health professional diagnoses GAD. They can help
determine whether your symptoms are related to another problem. The symptoms happen
on most days and last 6 months or longer.
How is GAD treated?
Your healthcare provider will consider your overall health, and other factors when
advising treatment for you.
Treatment may include:
- Counseling (cognitive behavioral therapy, or psychotherapy)
- Relaxation techniques
- Working with a therapist to boost coping skills
- Making lifestyle changes to reduce stress and avoid stimulating substances. Also,
seek help with quitting smoking, drug or alcohol use.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
If you have any symptoms of GAD, see your healthcare provider.
Key points about GAD?
- Generalized anxiety disorder is a condition of excessive worry about everyday issues
- It lasts longer than 6 months.
- In addition to feeling worried you may also feel restlessness, fatigue, trouble concentrating,
irritability, increased muscle tension, and trouble sleeping.
- The best treatment involves a combination of both medicines and cognitive behavioral
therapy. Symptoms tend to be chronic but get less severe as person gets older.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.