What is Guillain-Barré syndrome?
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), also called acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy
(AIDP), is a neurological disorder in which the body's immune system attacks the peripheral
nervous system. This is the part of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal
cord. The onset of GBS can be quite sudden and unexpected and requires immediate hospitalization.
It can develop over a few days, or it may take up to several weeks with the greatest
weakness occurring within the first couple of weeks after symptoms appear.
GBS is rare, affecting about 3,000 people in the U.S. It can affect people at any
age and both men and women equally. GBS often develops following a respiratory or
gastrointestinal viral infection.
What causes Guillain-Barré syndrome?
It’s not clear why some people get GBS. What is known is that the body's immune system
begins to attack the body itself.
Normally, the cells of the immune system attack only foreign material and invading
organisms, but in GBS, the immune system starts to destroy the myelin sheath that
surrounds the axons of many nerve cells, and, sometimes, the axons themselves.
When this occurs, the nerves can’t send signals efficiently, the muscles lose their
ability to respond to the commands of the brain, and the brain receives fewer sensory
signals from the rest of the body. The result is an inability to feel heat, pain,
and other sensations.
GBS can occur after a viral infection, surgery, injury, or a reaction to an immunization.
What are the symptoms of Guillain-Barré syndrome?
The following are the most common symptoms of GBS. But each person may have slightly
The first symptom includes weakness or tingling sensations in the legs. This sometimes
spreads to the arms and upper body. A neurological exam usually reveals a loss of
all deep tendon reflexes. The symptoms may get worse. In some cases, you may not be
able to use your muscles at all. You become paralyzed, and breathing is difficult.
Your blood pressure and heart function are affected. GBS is a medical emergency and
needs to be treated promptly.
Although symptoms can become life-threatening, partial recovery is possible from even
the most severe cases of GBS. But you may always have some degree of weakness.
The symptoms of GBS may look like other health conditions. Always talk with your healthcare
provider for a diagnosis.
How is Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed?
The signs and symptoms of GBS vary. It can be difficult to diagnose in its earliest
These signs and symptoms are unique to GBS:
- Symptoms on both sides of the body
- Symptoms appear quickly--days or weeks instead of months
- Loss of reflexes
- High protein level in cerebral spinal fluid. This is the fluid that surrounds the
spinal cord and brain.
To diagnose GBS, you may have the following tests:
- Spinal tap (lumbar puncture). A special needle is placed into the lower back, into the spinal canal. This is the
area around the spinal cord. The pressure in the spinal canal and brain can then be
measured. A small amount of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) can be removed and sent for
testing to find out if there is an infection or other problems.
- Electrodiagnostic tests, such as electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity
(NCV). These studies are done to evaluate and diagnose disorders of the muscles and motor
neurons. Electrodes are inserted into the muscle, or placed on the skin overlying
a muscle or muscle group, and electrical activity and muscle response are recorded.
How is Guillain-Barré syndrome treated?
There is no known cure for GBS. The goal of treatment is to prevent breathing problems
and relieve symptoms. You will need to stay in the hospital for treatment. Medicines
are used to control pain and other conditions that may be present. In addition, you
may get treatments, such as plasmapheresis or immunoglobulin, to suppress the immune
system and reduce inflammation caused by the immune system’s response to the disease.
- Plasmapheresis is a procedure that removes the plasma (liquid part of the blood) and replaces it
with other fluids. Antibodies are also removed with the plasma, which is thought to
help reduce the symptoms of the disease.
- Immunoglobulin is a blood product that helps to decrease the immune system’s attack on the nervous
Other therapies include hormonal therapy and physical therapy (to increase muscle
flexibility and strength).
Through research, new treatments for GBS are continually being identified.
Key points about Guillain-Barré syndrome
- Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a neurological disorder in which the body's immune
system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system.
- The onset can be quite sudden and unexpected and requires immediate hospitalization.
- The first symptoms include varying degrees of weakness or tingling sensations in the
legs, which, sometimes, spreads to the arms and upper body.
- The goal of treatment is to prevent breathing problems and relieve symptoms.
- Recovery can be lengthy and residual muscle weakness or paralysis can occur.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.